1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Trifolium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Trifolium repens L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, NW. Africa, Egypt to Zimbabwe, Europe to Mongolia and Himalaya.

    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Mediterranean grasslands.
    Habit
    Perennial, Not climbing, Herb
    Vernacular
    Ag Yoncha, Ak Dushpes-Mede, Amoriya Polzuchaya, Baltais Abolins, Baltais Dobilas, Carreton, Dutch Clover, Edzhyg Bobyo Nan, Ereknuk Sokhaunkh, Klever Belyi, Klever Polzuchi, Konyushina Povzucha, Ladino Clover, Melkhes Khoshoongor, Tetri Samkuri, Trebol, T
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Perennial herb, glabrous.
    Stem
    Stems creeping and rooting at the nodes.
    Leaves
    Leaves long-petioled; leaflets cuneate-obovate, the lateral nerves straight, pale; stipules small, obovate-lanceolate, with short, subulate points.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence globose; peduncle very long, erect; bracts small, ovate-oblong, acuminate.
    Flowers
    Flowers with pedicels slender, reflexed after flowering.
    Calyx
    Calyx glabrous; tube campanulate, 10-nerved; teeth triangular-lanceolate, subulate, pale-margined, the two upper longer.
    Corolla
    Corolla white or whitish or pinkish, ± twice as long as the calyx; standard oblong; wings subequalling the claw, the auricles short and broad; keel slightly shorter than the wings.
    Fruits
    Pod linear-oblong, 3–4 seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid, pale brown.
    [ILDIS]
    Use
    Chemical products, Domestic, Environmental, Food and Drink, Forage, Medicine, Toxins, Weed

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Central European Rus, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Madeira, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Aleutian Is., Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Amur, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Crozet Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, Falkland Is., Fiji, Free State, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kentucky, Kerguelen, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Magadan, Mexico Southwest, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Panamá, Peru, Primorye, Queensland, Réunion, Sakhalin, South Georgia, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Tennessee, Tristan da Cunha, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Western Australia, Yakutskiya

    Trifolium repens L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 12, 1969 Carauta, J.P.P. [527], Brazil K000931826
    Jan 1, 1958 Gay, C. [s.n.], Chile K000500718
    Chile K000500715
    Gillett, J.B. [8033], Iraq K000744714
    Gillett, J.B. [9541], Iraq K000744716
    Gillett, J.B. [11736], Iraq K000744720
    Hepper, F.N. [13279], Lebanon K000744694
    Davis, P.H. [22188], Turkey K000744705
    Furse, P. [3891], Turkey K000744703
    Harrington, G.N. [312], Iran K000744682
    Simpson, N.D. [4829], Egypt K000744711
    Lindsay, N. [814], Iran K000744685
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [4788], Rio de Janeiro K000500716
    Pearce [61] K000500717
    Rawi, A. [11404], Iraq K000744713
    Reed, E.C. [s.n.], Chile K000500714
    Merton, L.F.H. [3412], Iran K000744692
    Cowan [2511], Iran K000744686
    Cowan [1001], Iran K000744687
    Cowan [2300], Iran K000744688
    Haradjian, M. [1318], Turkey K000744697
    Haradjian, M. [3224], Syria K000744698
    Chapman, E. [26152], Iraq K000744718
    Crisp, P. [167], Iran K000744681
    Kass [27547], Iraq K000744719
    Gilliat-Smith, B. [1662], Iran K000744684
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 402], Great Britain K000914215
    Royle, J.F. [s.n.], USA K001051329
    Sabeti [11802], Iran K000744679
    Sayer, J. [67], Iran K000744693
    Filho, H.F.L. [1827], Brazil K000931825
    s.coll. [139] K001051328
    s.coll. [s.n.], Lebanon K000744695
    Wright Jr, H.E [411-104], Iran K000744689
    Cranklust [2960], Iraq K000744715
    Babakhanlou-Amin, B. [11805], Iran K000744677
    Babakhanlou-Amin [11796], Iran K000744678
    Babakhanlou-Amin [11795], Iran K000744680
    Meyers, F.S [1813], Syria K000744696
    Riddell, A.J [9], Turkey K000744707
    Chapman, G. [12272], Iraq K000744717

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 767 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Dash, S.S. (2011). Notes on the distribution of some Legume species in Arunachal Pradesh Nelumbo 53: 183-193.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa.
    • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Japan IIb: 1-550. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R. & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. Botany division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch.
    • Smith, A.C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 3: 1-758. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Rechinger, K.H. & al. (1984). Papilionaceae II Flora Iranica 157: 1-499. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1974). Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Standley, P.C. & Steyermark, J.A. (1946). Flora of Guatemala Fieldiana Botany New Series 24(5): 1-502. Field Museum of Natural History.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Dash, S.S. (2011). Notes on the distribution of some Legume species in Arunachal Pradesh Nelumbo 53: 183-193.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa.
    • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Japan IIb: 1-550. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R. & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. Botany division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch.
    • Smith, A.C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 3: 1-758. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Rechinger, K.H. & al. (1984). Papilionaceae II Flora Iranica 157: 1-499. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    International Legume Database and Information Service
    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
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    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
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