1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Trifolium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Trifolium simense Fresen.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Bioko to Eritrea and Zambia.

    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Afromontane grassland
    Habit
    Annual, Not climbing, Herb
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Perennial herb.
    Roots
    Roots with elongated nodules.
    Stem
    Stems up to 50 cm, erect or sometimes semi-decumbent but not rooting at the nodes.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate; leaflets glabrous or sparsely pilose, those of the lower leaves c. 1 cm long, narrowly cuneate-oblong, those of the upper leaves up to 6 cm long, linear-lanceolate, with well-marked, subulate teeth on the margins, the lateral nerves many on each side, at 5–15º to the midrib; petioles 1–3 cm long, adnate to the stem-sheathing stipules for all their length; stipules ending in bristly points, glabrous but pilose at the margins.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence hemispherical or ovoid, c. 13 mm in diameter; peduncle up to 5 cm long, pilose, especially at the top; bracts up to 1 mm long, white.
    Flowers
    Flowers with pedicels c. 1 mm long, erect in fruit.
    Calyx
    Calyx whitish, glabrous or sparsely pilose; tube c. 2 mm long, 17–20-nerved; teeth 2–3 mm long, subulate.
    Corolla
    Corolla nearly twice as long as the calyx, pink-purple, rarely white; standard c. 6 mm long.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3–5 mm long.
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-ovulate, glabrous; style 2.5 mm long, persistent.
    Fruits
    Pod 1–2-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds c. 1.3 × 1 mm, ovoid, pale brown.
    [FWTA]

    Papilionaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    Straggling perennial herb up to 11/2 ft. high
    Flowers
    Purple flowers
    Ecology
    In mountain grassland.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Perennial or perhaps, rarely, annual herb; some of the roots often rather thick and fleshy; stems erect, or sometimes procumbent at the base, but not rooting at the nodes, usually glabrous, sometimes pilose above, up to 60 cm. tall.
    Leaves
    Stipules 1–4 cm. long, glabrous or pilose at the margins, always with some hairs at base of petiolules, the free part much shorter than the sheath, except sometimes when the bristly tip is much elongated; leaflets narrowly cuneate-oblong, oblanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 1–6 cm. long, up to 3 mm. wide, glabrous or sparsely pilose, with well-marked subulate teeth, at any rate near the tip; lateral nerves many, at 5–15° to the midrib.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences hemispherical or ovoid, ± 15 mm. across; peduncle up to 5 cm. long, pilose, especially at the top; bracts white, up to 1 mm. long, the outer ones often notched; pedicels ± 1 mm. long, erect in fruit.
    Calyx
    Calyx whitish, pilose at the margins only; tube ± 2 mm. long, 17–20-nerved; teeth subulate, 2–3 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla reddish-purple, rarely white; standard 6–8 mm. long.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3–5 mm. long.
    Ovary
    Ovary usually glabrous.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1–2, pale brown, oval, ± 1·3 by 1 mm.
    Figures
    Fig. 143.
    Habitat
    Upland grassland; 1500–3100 m.; rainfall 1000–1100 mm.
    Distribution
    K2 K3 K5 T2 T4 T7 U1

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Burundi, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gulf of Guinea Is., Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre

    Trifolium simense Fresen. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [694], Cameroon K000746608
    Dec 1, 2000 Buzgo, M. [658], Cameroon K000338594
    Jan 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [356], Cameroon K000338591
    Jul 1, 1998 Kamundi, D. [660], Cameroon K000338592
    Jan 1, 1976 Hepper, F.N. [2150], Cameroon K000087324
    Dec 1, 1974 Letouzey, R. [13456], Cameroon K000087125
    Nov 1, 1974 Letouzey, R. [13085], Cameroon K000087166
    Jan 1, 1960 Morton, J.K. [885], Cameroon K000087321
    Jan 1, 1953 Morton, J.K. [6791], Cameroon K000087320
    Morton, J.K. [755], Cameroon K000087314
    Maitland, T.D. [1006], Cameroon K000087316
    Maitland, T.D. [915], Cameroon K000087319
    Maitland, T.D. [1210], Cameroon K000087327
    Boughey, A.S. [0s.n.], Cameroon K000087313
    Boughey, A.S. [10626B], Cameroon K000087326
    Mann, G. [0s.n.03], Cameroon K000087317
    Mann, G. [2018], Cameroon K000087318
    Hedberg, O. [93131], Cameroon K000087426
    Bidgood, S. [5370], Tanzania K000190600
    Migeod, F. [168], Cameroon K000087315
    Mildbraed, G. W. J. [10862], Cameroon K000087325
    Savory, H. J. [487], Cameroon K000087322

    First published in Flora 22: 49 (1839)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • de la Estrella, M., Cabezas, F.J., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2010). The Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Folia Geobotanica 45: 1-57.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Fl. Congo Belge 4: 293
    • Jac.-Fél. in Agronom Trop. 8: 288, t. 1 C.
    • Gillett in Kew Bull. 1952: 375, figs. 2, 1–7: 3
    • —F.T.A. 2: 57
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • de la Estrella, M., Cabezas, F.J., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2010). The Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Folia Geobotanica 45: 1-57.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gillett in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 553 (1958).
    • Gillett in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 4: 293 (1953)
    • Gillett in Kew Bulletin 7: 375, figs. 2/1–7 & 3 (1952)
    • Fiori in N. Giorn. Bot. Ital. n.s. 55: 346, fig. 23 (1949).
    • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 2: 57 (1871).
    • Fresen. in Flora 22: 49 (1839).
    International Legume Database and Information Service
    • Gillett, J. B. et al. (1971). Papilionoideae. In: Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Milne-Redhead & Polhill

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    International Legume Database and Information Service
    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0