1. Family: Araceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Lemna L.
      1. Lemna minor L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [FTEA]

    Lemnaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1973

    Habit
    Free-floating aquatic.
    Thallus
    Thallus dark green, symmetrical, flat, oblong-ovate. 2.5–6 mm. long, 1.5–4 mm. wide, rather obscurely 3-nerved, without large airspaces evident beneath.
    Roots
    Root solitary, arising along a shallow groove; sheath unwinged; root-cap obtuse.
    Flowers
    Floral pocket lateral; spathe open at the top. Pistillate flower solitary. Staminate flowers 2, each with a single stamen.
    Male
    Staminate flowers 2, each with a single stamen.
    Female
    Pistillate flower solitary.
    Seeds
    Seed solitary, not ribbed, reticulate.
    Figures
    Fig. 1/3, p. 3.
    Habitat
    Surface of pools at cooler altitudes; up to 1800 m.
    Distribution
    K4 U2 widespread elsewhere
    [CATE]

    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

    Vernacular
    Lesser Duckweed, or Duckmeat
    Diagnostic
    Fronds not coloured on the lower surface or if slightly reddish, the upper surface is more intensely coloured; does not occur in East Asia. Thallus with small cells and small airspaces; root arising in a groove. Root sheath not winged.
    General Description
    FRONDS 1-8 (very rarely up to 10) mm long, 0.6-5.0 (very rarely up to 7.0) mm wide, 1 1/3-2 times as long as wide; shiny on the upper surface; with some indistinct papules along the median line (papules near the tip and above the node somewhat larger than the ones between), with 3 (rarely up to 4-5) nerves; if 4-5 nerves present the outer lateral nerves originate from the lower part of the inner lateral nerves,; never gibbous (not thicker than about 1 mm), on the upper surface occasionally diffusely reddish (especially during the cold season), on the lower surface very rarely slightly reddish (but much less intensely than on the upper surface); greatest distance between the inner lateral nerves in or somewhat below the middle of the nerves; largest air spaces rarely wider than 0.3 mm; rootcap usually rounded (living and dried material) ; no rootless turions which sink to the bottom of the water present. INFLORESCENCE: Plants occasionally flowering and very rarely fruiting. Ovary with 1 ovule; style 0.10-0.15 mm long INFRUCTESCENCE: fruit 0.8-1.0 mm long, 0.8-1.1 mm wide, with winged margin; wing 0.05-0.10 mm wide; seed 0.7-1.0 mm long, 0.4-0.6 mm thick, whitish, with 10-16 distinct ribs, stays within the fruit wall after ripening.
    Habitat
    Stagnant waters, covering the surface with a green mantle
    Distribution
    Temperate regions of the whole world except East Asia and Australia (introduced around Melbourne), with relatively mild winters

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bermuda, Brazil Northeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Føroyar, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malaya, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, Sinai, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Svalbard, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tennessee, Texas, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Ascension, St.Helena

    Lemna minor L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 1, 1971 Liebenberg [868], Uganda K000499404
    24310.000
    Kenya 34355.000
    Summerhayes, V.S. [1343], United Kingdom 24306.000
    Rodway, F.A. [1551], Australia 23594.000
    Melville, R., United Kingdom 23959.000
    Melville, R. [54144], United Kingdom 24305.000
    Melville, R., United Kingdom 24308.000
    Melville, R. 36862.000
    Melville, R. [2216], Australia 36867.000
    Melville, R. [2245], Australia 36874.000
    Hepper, F.N. [4226], United Kingdom 34076.000
    Townsend, C.C. [73/376], Pakistan 34989.000
    Zotov, V.D. [2], New Zealand 23592.000
    Zotov, V.D. [3], New Zealand 24301.000
    Melville, R. 23593.000
    Moss, C.E. [16977], South Africa 24302.000
    Moss, C.E. [16974], South Africa 24304.000
    Weintroub, D., South Africa 24303.000
    Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [4994], Netherlands 27724.000
    Wash, J. [577], Ethiopia 39179.000
    Clarkson, J.R. [2632], Australia 49155.000
    Chase, M.W. [11761] 72230.000
    De Sloover, J.L., Rwanda Lemna rwandensis 38698.000 isotype

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 970 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (2016). Flora of Japan IVb: 1-335. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
    • Bobrov, A.A. & Mochalova, O.A. (2013). Notes on aquatic vascular plants in Magadam region Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 98: 1287-1299.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Haigh, A. & Boyce, P.C. (2012). Flora Zambesiaca 12(1): 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Mansor, M., Boyce, P.C., Othman, A.S. & Sulaiman, B. (2012). The Araceae of peninsular Malaysia: 1-146. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Packer, J.G. & Gould, J. (2007). Vascular Plants of alberta 1: 1-281. University of Calgary Press.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (2016). Flora of Japan IVb: 1-335. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Bobrov, A.A. & Mochalova, O.A. (2013). Notes on aquatic vascular plants in Magadam region Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 98: 1287-1299.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Haigh, A. & Boyce, P.C. (2012). Flora Zambesiaca 12(1): 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Packer, J.E. (1974). Ascension Handbook. A concise guide to Ascension Island South Atlantic ed. 2 Packer, Georgetown.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Daubs, Monogr. Lemnac.: 21, t. 7 (1965).
    • N.E. Br. in Flora of Tropical Africa 8: 202(1901).
    • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 133(1895).
    • Engl. in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 2, 3: 164, 154, fig. 101/B, 107/A, B, 108–9/A (1889).
    • Hegelm., Lemnac. Monogr.: 142, t. 9–10 (1868).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 970 (1753).

    Sources

    CATE Araceae
    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0