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  1. Family: Araceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Spirodela Schleid.
      1. Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [CATE]

    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

    General Description
    Fronds rounded or pointed at the tip, 1.5-10 mm long, 1.5-8.0 mm wide, 1-1 1/2 times as long as wide, thin or (rarely) gibbous, sometimes with a red spot above the node; nerves 40-70 urn wide; air spaces in 2-4 layers, nearly reaching the margin; roots 7-21, 1 or (rarely) 2 of which perforate the prophylluin; rootcap rounded or pointed on living specimens, always pointed on dried specimens; small, orbicular to reniform shaped, brownish to olive turions without roots present which form under unfavourable conditions and sink to the bottom of the water. INFLORESCENCE/INFRUCTESCENCE: Plants very rarely flowering and fruiting. Ovary with 1-2 ovules (MAHESHWARI and MAHESHWARI 1963 rarely counted up to 4 ovules; but the material of these authors originated from a botanical garden and may have consisted of S. intermedia ). Style about 0.3 mm long; fruit 1.0-1.5 mm long and 1.0-1.5 mm wide; winged edges of the fruit near the top about 0.15 mm wide; seeds 1 (rarely 2), 0.7-1.0 mm long, about 0.7 mm thick, with 12-20 distinct ribs; external seed coat with 8-11 subepidermal cell layers.
    Diagnostic
    Fronds 1-1.5 (rarely 1 2/3) times as long as wide, with 7-16 (21) nerves; roots 7-21 of which 1-5 but never all perforate the scale like leaflet. Different to S.oligorrhizae which has 5-7 (rarely 3) nerves; roots 2-7, all of which perforate the scale like leaflet.
    Distribution
    All over the world except arctic, subarctic, very humid and very dry regions or regions with cool summers; rare in mediterranean climates; lacking in South America (except the northwest), in New Zealand and on some other oceanic islands
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 200 m.; Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba, acuática
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FWTA]

    Lemnaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Habit
    Floating herb with roundish thallus grouped in colonies, often covering large areas of water
    Thallus
    Thallus green or pink tinged above, pink beneath.
    [FTEA]

    Lemnaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1973

    Habit
    Free-floating aquatic.
    Thallus
    Thallus orbicular-ovate, 3–8 mm. long, almost as broad, with 5–11 conspicuous nerves, sometimes tinged pink above, usually purplish beneath.
    Growth
    Daughter thallus budding from near point of root-insertion in a slit in the mother thallus.
    Roots
    Roots 5–15, arising from greatly thickened basal part of thallus; root-cap acute.
    Buds
    Rootless resting bud (turion) produced in adverse conditions, 2 mm. in diameter.
    Flowers
    Flowers seldom produced, surrounded by a small open spathe in a lateral slit-pouch, with 1 pistillate flower, and 2–3 staminate flowers each consisting of a single stamen.
    Fruits
    Fruit slightly wing-margined.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1–2.
    Figures
    Fig. 2/1.
    Habitat
    Still water, numerous individuals often cohering or floating together on the surface of the water; 450–1200 m.
    Distribution
    cosmopolitan K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 U2 U3 U4

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Albania, Alberta, Altay, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Palestine, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Senegal, Sicilia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Utah, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1979 Meyer, F.G. [8782], Ethiopia K000499421
    New Guinea 34827.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [s.n.], United Kingdom 23597.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [11417], Kenya 33963.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [7049], Tanzania 33966.000
    Brenan, J.P.M., Zambia 24318.000
    Summerhayes, V.S. [1306], United Kingdom 24321.000
    Melville, R., United Kingdom 24319.000
    Harley, R.M. [9121], Tanzania 24320.000
    Hepper, F.N. [4794], Sri Lanka 33566.000
    Hepper, F.N. [4712], Sri Lanka 33567.000
    Townsend, C.C. [73/361], Pakistan 35000.000
    Hooper, S. [F], India 34134.000
    Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [4995], Netherlands 30003.000
    Leonard, J. [3669], Chad 29962.000
    Simpson, N.D., Egypt 36485.000
    Broadbent, J.A. [32], Nigeria 6049.088
    Broadbent, J.A. [12], Nigeria 6049.103
    Broadbent, J.A. [19], Nigeria 6049.105

    Bibliography

    First published in Linnaea 13: 392 (1839)

    Accepted by

    • Güner, A. (ed.) (2018). Resimli Türkiye Floras? (Illustrated Flora of Turkey) 2: 1-1054. ANG Vakf?/Nezahat Gökyi?it Botanik Bahçesi, Istambul.
    • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2018). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 9 Willdenowia 48: 195-220.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (2016). Flora of Japan IVb: 1-335. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boborov, A.A. & al. (2014). Notes on aquatic and semiaquatic vascular plants of Kamchatka Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 99: 1025-1043.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Haigh, A. & Boyce, P.C. (2012). Flora Zambesiaca 12(1): 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mansor, M., Boyce, P.C., Othman, A.S. & Sulaiman, B. (2012). The Araceae of peninsular Malaysia: 1-146. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Timukhin, I.N. (2008). New records of vascular plants from western Caucasus Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 93: 789-791.
    • Lejoly, J., Ndjele, L. & Geerinck, D. (2008). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 24: 1-37.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Maheshwari in Nature 181: 1745 (1958).
    • Lawalrée in Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 77: 27 (1945)
    • Jumelle in Fl. Madag. 32: 3 (1937)
    • in Linnaea 13: 392 (1839)

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2018). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 9 Willdenowia 48: 195-220.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Haigh, A. & Boyce, P.C. (2012). Flora Zambesiaca 12(1): 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Lejoly, J., Ndjele, L. & Geerinck, D. (2008). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 24: 1-37.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Hepper in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 129, fig. 361/B (1968).
    • Daubs, Monogr. Lemnac.: 10, t. 3 (1965).
    • Maheskwari in Nature 181: 1745 (1958).
    • Troupin in Expl. Parc Nat. Garamba 1: 154 (1956).
    • Lawalrée in Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique 77: 27 (1945).
    • Jumelle in Fl. Madag. 32: 3 (1937).
    • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 422 (1895).
    • Hegelm., Lemnac. Monogr.: 73, 151, t. 13/10–16, t. 14, 15 (1868).
    • Schleid. in Linnaea 13: 392 (1839).

    Sources

    CATE Araceae
    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/