1. Family: Lentibulariaceae Rich.
    1. Genus: Utricularia L.
      1. Utricularia gibba L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World, America.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 20 - 3850 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca.
    Habit
    Hierba, acuática
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor
    [FZ]

    Lentibulariaceae, P. Taylor. Flora Zambesiaca 8:3. 1988

    Habit
    Aquatic or subaquatic herb.
    Stolons
    Stolons usually up to more or less 10, fasciculate at the base of the peduncle, filiform, terete, up to 20 cm.×1 mm., sometimes slightly inflated.
    Rhizoids
    Rhizoids few from the base of the peduncle, often absent, filiform.
    Leaves
    Leaves numerous, alternate on the stolons, up to 20 mm. long; segments capillary, glabrous or sparsely setulose, simple or usually dichotomously forked from or near the base, each segment sometimes again 1–3 or rarely more times forked.
    Traps
    Traps usually numerous, replacing one of the leaf segments at a fork, ovoid, 1–1.5 mm. long, stalked; mouth lateral, with 2 dorsal, long, usually copiously branched hairs and a few ventral shorter simple hairs.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence erect, 2–35 cm. high, solitary or often several arising in succession from the fascicle of stolons; flowers (1)2(6); peduncle straight, smooth and glabrous; scales absent or more usually 1 at or above the middle of the peduncle, similar to the bracts; bracts basifixed, semi-circular, semi-amplexicaul, more or less 1 mm. long; bracteoles absent; pedicels filiform, erect, (2)6–12(30) mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx lobes subequal, circular to broadly ovate, 1–3 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow, often with brown or reddish nerves, 4–25 mm. long; superior lip circular, 2–3 times as long as the upper calyx lobe, usually shallowly and obscurely 3-lobed; inferior lip usually shorter and narrower than the superior, circular, usually entire, rarely emarginate; palate much raised and bigibbous; spur conical to narrowly cylindrical, shorter than to almost twice as long as the inferior lip, the apex usually bearing a few shortly stalked glands.
    Stamens
    Filaments linear; anther-thecae more or less confluent.
    Pistil
    Ovary globose; style short but distinct; stigma inferior lip semi-circular, superior short, more or less obsolete.
    Fruits
    Capsule globose, 2–4 mm. in diam., dehiscing into 2 lateral valves.
    Seeds
    Seeds rather few (more or less 20–40), imbricate on the smooth placenta, lenticular with a broad irregular wing, 1–1.6 mm. in total diam., distal surface smooth to verrucose; hilum prominent; testa-cells small, irregular, indistinct.
    [FTEA]

    Lentibulariaceae, P. Taylor. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1973

    Habit
    Aquatic or subaquatic herb.
    Stolons
    Stolons usually up to ± 10, fasciculate at the base of the scape, filiform, terete, up to 20 cm. long or more, sometimes slightly inflated, up to 1 mm. thick.
    Rhizoids
    Rhizoids few from the base of the scape, often absent, filiform.
    Leaves
    Leaves numerous, alternate on the stolons, up to 20 mm. long; segments capillary, glabrous, simple or usually dichotomously forked from or near the base, each segment sometimes again 1–3 or rarely more times forked.
    Traps
    Traps usually numerous, replacing one of the leaf-segments at a fork, ovoid, 1–1.5 mm. long, stalked; mouth lateral; upper lip with 2 long usually copiously branched hairs; lower lip usually with a few shorter simple hairs.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence erect, 2–35 cm. high, solitary or often several arising in succession from the fascicle of stolons; flowers (1–)2(–6); scape straight, smooth and glabrous; scales absent or more usually 1 at or above the middle of the scape, similar to the bracts; bracts basifixed, semi-orbicular, semi-amplexicaul, ± 1 mm. long; bracteoles absent; pedicels filiform, erect, (2–)6–12(–30) mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx-lobes subequal, orbicular to broadly ovate, 1–3 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow, often with brown or reddish nerves, 4–25 mm. long; upper lip orbicular, 2–3 times as long as the upper calyx-lobe, usually shallowly and obscurely 3-lobed; lower lip usually shorter and narrower than the upper, orbicular, usually entire, rarely emarginate; palate much raised and bigibbous; spur conical to narrowly cylindrical, shorter than to almost twice as long as the lower lip, apex usually bearing a few shortly stalked glands.
    Stamens
    Filaments linear; anther-thecae ± confluent.
    Pistil
    Ovary globose; style short but distinct; stigma lower lip semi-orbicular, upper short, ± obsolete.
    Fruits
    Capsule globose, 2–4 mm. in diameter, dehiscing into 2 lateral valves.
    Seeds
    Seeds rather few (± 20–40), imbricate on the smooth placenta, lenticular with a broad irregular wing, 1–1.6 mm. in total diameter, outer surface smooth to verrucose; hilum prominent; testa-cells small, irregular, indistinct.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 2700 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Malaya, Mali, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Carolina, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Great Britain, Hungary, New Zealand North

    Common Names

    English
    Bladderwort

    Utricularia gibba L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 2009 Darbyshire, I. [616], Sierra Leone 76203.000
    Dec 22, 2005 Johns, R.J. et al. [7933], Irian Jaya K000223721
    Jun 16, 2005 Hatschbach [19318], Brazil 31644.000
    Jun 15, 2005 Sandwith, N.Y. [1021], Guyana 16291.000
    Jun 15, 2005 Hatschbach [13724], Brazil 31646.000
    Jun 15, 2005 Stearn, W.T., Jamaica 38128.000
    Jun 15, 2005 Wadsworth, Jamaica 41424.000
    Jun 13, 2005 Baker [15173], Trinidad & Tobago 16286.000
    Sep 1, 2002 Gosline, G. [190], Cameroon K000198346
    Jan 1, 1994 Hartweg [183], Mexico K000533801 isotype
    Jan 1, 1993 Hartweg [183], Zacatecas K000533804 isotype
    Jul 27, 1966 Breedlove, D.E. [9235], Mexico K001091482
    Jun 29, 1965 Salzmann [s.n.], Bahia K000533928 isotype
    Brazil 3360.019
    Brazil 33646.000
    Venezuela 38118.000
    Trinidad & Tobago 39263.000
    Trinidad & Tobago 40288.000
    India 49311.000
    Madagascar 49313.000
    Guyana 51146.000
    Taylor, P. 16324.000
    Taylor, P. [13025], USA 34910.000
    Taylor, P. [13015], USA 34911.000
    Taylor, P. [13026], USA 34935.000
    Taylor, P. [13041], USA 35041.000
    Taylor, P. [13058], USA 35061.000
    Taylor, P. [13020], USA 35063.000
    Buxton, P.A., Sudan 1150.000
    Chevalier, A. [21865], Côte d'Ivoire K000430209 Unknown type material
    Harley, R.M. [10253], Brazil 35986.000
    Harley, R.M. [19209], Brazil 38784.000
    Harley, R.M. [18456], Brazil 38791.000
    Harley, R.M. [19392A], Brazil 38798.000
    Harley, R.M. [18014], Brazil 38799.000
    Harley, R.M. [18339A], Brazil 39394.000
    Richards, H.M. [26192S], Tanzania 36107.000
    Gossweiler, J. [1100], Angola K001009279
    Milne-Redhead, E. [4122], Angola K001009280
    Baldwin, J.T. [16016], USA 27118.000
    Baldwin, J.T. [16021], USA 27142.000
    Baldwin, J.T. [16020], USA 27144.000
    Mikula [3219], USA 12992.000
    Mikula [3715], USA 16277.000
    Baker [15174], Trinidad & Tobago 16292.000
    Harley [21466], Brazil 45255.000
    Hunt, D.R. [7001], Belize 22748.003
    Hunt, D.R. [7045], Belize 22748.011
    Hunt, D.R. [6468], Brazil 30177.000
    Hunt, D.R. [7038], Belize 32552.000
    Philcox, D. 30554.000
    Philcox, D. [8345], Trinidad & Tobago 40290.000
    Philcox, D. [8333], Trinidad & Tobago 41087.000
    Taylor, P.G. [13013], Trinidad & Tobago 25834.001
    Taylor, P.G. [13018], USA 2700.046
    Taylor, P.G. [13096], USA 33393.000
    Taylor, P.G. [13065], USA 34680.000
    Pohl, R.W. [9580], USA 27149.000
    Pohl, R.W. [9579], USA 27161.000
    Renvoize, S.A. [3690], Argentina 40888.000
    Philcox [8031], Trinidad & Tobago 38639.000
    Lewis, G.P. [801], Brazil 47768.000
    Pedersen, T.M. [8757], Argentina 33373.000
    Pedersen, T.M. [9457], Paraguay 35167.000
    Hatschbach [9536], Brazil 31640.000
    Hatschbach [14322], Brazil 33584.000
    Pinchon, P.R., Martinique 33365.000
    Jeannoda, Y. [0022], French Guiana 33692.000
    Mennega, A.M.W. [373], Suriname 35014.000
    Lindeham [432], Suriname 36250.017
    Pattison, G. [s.n.], Mexico K001091475
    Coveny, R. [10602], Australia 51147.000
    van Dousdaar, J. [3041], Suriname 38127.000
    Philcox, D.J. [8253], Trinidad & Tobago 38625.000
    Rankin, M.O. [2360], Australia 41411.000
    Beck, G. [6948], Bolivia 44105.000
    Clarkson, J.R. [4413], Australia 49310.000
    Clarkson, J.R. [4738], Australia 51148.000
    Clarkson, J.R. [4843], Australia 51153.000
    Veillon [4432], New Caledonia 49309.000
    Beudels, R., Rwanda 52539.000
    Welwitsch [267], Angola K001009275
    Spruce, R. [s.n.], Para K000533927
    Johnston, H.H. [s.n.], Angola K001009277
    Salzmann [s.n.], Bahia K000533926
    Parker [s.n.], Guyana K000533930
    Parker [s.n.], Guyana K000533929
    Wright, C. [2897], Cuba K000533838
    Pringle, C.G. [s.n.], Mexico K001091476
    Rovirosa, J.N. [557], Mexico K001091478
    Jameson [s.n.], Jamaica K000533802
    Palmer, E. [161], Durango K000533805
    Parry, C.C. [6931/2], San Luis Potosí K000533803
    Gay, C. [s.n.], Chile K000533963
    Hess, H. [50/243], Angola K001009268
    Hess, H. [50/195], Angola K001009273
    Baum, H. [41], Angola K001009276
    Baum, H. [123], Angola K001009278
    Hostmann [83], Suriname K000533931
    Nuttall [s.n.] K000533806
    Schaffner, J.G. [336], Mexico K001091480
    Pinkava, D.J. [4291], Mexico K001091477
    Breedlove, D.E. [9241], Mexico K001091479
    Breedlove, D.E. [7105], Mexico K001091481
    Barnhart, J.H. [2537], Florida K000806339 Unknown type material
    Hess-Wyss, H. [52/1839], Angola K001009267
    Hess-Wyss, H. [52/1669], Angola K001009269
    Hess-Wyss, H. [52/2029], Angola K001009270
    Hess-Wyss, H. [52/2102], Angola K001009271
    Hess-Wyss, H. [52/2040], Angola K001009272
    Hess-Wyss, H. [52/317], Angola K001009274
    Uganda Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 4821.000
    Brenan, J.P.M. [7937], Zambia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 1151.000
    Taylor, P. [17071], Australia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 40541.000
    Taylor, P. [17062], Australia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 40542.000
    Taylor, P. [17068], Australia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 40543.000
    Taylor, P. [17116], Australia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 41366.000
    Taylor, P. [17115], Australia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 41438.000
    Taylor, P. [17067], Australia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 43426.000
    Taylor, P. [17111], Australia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 43690.000
    Verdcourt, B. [428], Kenya Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 4824.000
    Wild, H. [3851], Zimbabwe Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 3552.000
    Rayner, R.W. [393], Kenya Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 3553.000
    Sayers, D. [18903], New Guinea Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 27260.000
    Barnes, E. [U.G.], India Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 27284.000
    Richards, H.M. [2107], Zambia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 1160.000
    Purseglove, J.W. [3632], Uganda Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 6546.000
    Meikle, R.D. [1224], Nigeria Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 3549.000
    Meikle, R.D. [1330], Nigeria Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 3559.000
    Meikle, R.D. [1021], Nigeria Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 3560.000
    Meikle, R.D. [523], Nigeria Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 3562.000
    Meikle, R.D. [1029], Nigeria Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 4823.000
    Meikle, R.D. [876], Nigeria Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 7008.000
    Richards, H.M. [15204], Zambia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 3555.000
    Richards, H.M. [15205], Zambia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 3561.000
    Richards, H.M. [23406], Tanzania Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 7408.000
    Adames, P. [201], Sierra Leone Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 1158.000
    Onochie [34271], Nigeria Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 4825.000
    Hepper, F.N. [2660], Sierra Leone Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 1157.000
    Hepper, F.N. [1627], Cameroon Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 3550.000
    Hepper, F.N. [1545], Cameroon Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 6322.000
    Brenan [8598], Nigeria Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 1152.000
    Bosser, J. [13424], Madagascar Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 1153.000
    Adams, C.D., Ghana Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 1154.000
    Adams, C.D., Ghana Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 4820.000
    Jordan [2096], Sierra Leone Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 1156.000
    Jones [386], Sierra Leone Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 1155.000
    McClintock, A. [109], Cameroon Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 3554.000
    Jones, T.S. [310], Sierra Leone Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 4822.000
    Baldwin, J.T. [13225], Liberia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 6545.000
    Akpabla, G.K. [3866], Ghana Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 30570.000
    Napper [909], Tanzania Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 3551.000
    Thomas, A.S. [1555], Uganda Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 3556.000
    Thomas, A.S. [1557], Uganda Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 3558.000
    Dunlop, C. [3174], Australia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 18739.021
    Dunlop, C. [3637], Australia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 35772.046
    Dunlop, C. [3876], Australia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 36703.000
    Cribb, P. [in AOF 12A], Australia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 47130.000
    Bosser, M., Madagascar Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 29882.000
    Heppes, F.N. [3694], Senegal Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 33808.000
    Rao, K.S. [B1], India Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 36304.000
    Kenneally, K.F. [KFK 1995], Australia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 36430.000
    Lavarack, P. [1076], Australia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 38629.000
    Lavarack, P. [3025], Australia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 40008.000
    Dunlop, C.R. [5123], Australia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 40122.000
    Schafer Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 39868.000
    Lock, J.M. [82/3], Sudan Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 47110.000
    Jackes, E.M. [1], Australia Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta 42694.000
    Bidgood, S. [6008], Tanzania Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta K000468417
    Wailly, M. de [5273], Mali Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta K000385997
    Wailly, M. de [5272], Mali Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta K000385998
    Wailly, M. de [5273], Mali Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta K000385999
    Wailly, M. de [5272], Mali Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta K000386000
    Brunt, M.A. [371], Cameroon Utricularia gibba subsp. exoleta K000028922
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1498], Nepal Utricularia biflora K001113240
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1498] Utricularia biflora K001113242
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 1498], Myanmar Utricularia biflora K001113241
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1498] Utricularia biflora K001113251
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1498], India Utricularia biflora K001113252
    Utricularia pumila 16304.000
    Mikula [3858], USA Utricularia pumila 16300.000
    Mikula [3583], USA Utricularia pumila 16305.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 18 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Hernández Rendón, J. & Zamudio Ruiz, S. (2017). Flora de Guerrero 77: 1-48. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Taylor, P. (1989). The Genus Utricularia: a taxonomic monograph: 1-724. Her Majesty's stationery office, London.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Sp. Pl. 18 (1753).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
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    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/