1. Family: Asparagaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Chlorophytum Ker Gawl.
      1. Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Tropical Africa to Cameroon, Ethiopia to S. Africa.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1480 - 1500 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Hierba
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca Anthericaceae by S. Kativu, G. Hoell, C.S. Bjorå & I. Nordal

    Habit
    Plants 15–70 cm high.
    Rhizomes
    Rhizome small, often indistinct.
    Roots
    Roots narrow to slightly swollen, often with elongated tubers.
    Leaves
    Leaves in basal rosette, pseudopetiolate, lanceolate, acute, glabrous, 8–40 × 0.5–4 cm, margins minutely scabrid.
    Peduncles
    Peduncles 1–4 per plant, terete, glabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence usually unbranched or with only 1–2 branches, sometimes represented by sterile bracts, or ± paniculate; outer floral bracts oblanceolate, glabrous, inner ones narrower, small, shortly cilate on margins, to 10 mm long; rachis often scabrid.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels articulated above middle, lower ones 2–4 per node, 4–5 mm long in fruit.
    Perianth
    Perianth white; tepals 5–7 mm long, 3-veined.
    Stamens
    Stamens as long or slightly longer than perianth; filaments smooth, dilated above middle, longer than anthers.
    Ovary
    Ovary sessile, with c.4 ovules per locule; style as long as stamens.
    Fruits
    Capsules deeply lobed, often bearing perianth remains, 3–5(9) × 4–5 mm.
    Seeds
    Seeds saucer-shaped, slightly folded, 1.5–2 mm across.
    Distribution
    A widespread and variable species complex found across sub-Saharan Africa.
    Ecology
    Usually growing in shade, generally in evergreen forests or woodlands; 50–1800 m.
    Conservation
    Conservation notes: Widespread taxon; not threatened.
    [FTEA]

    Anthericaceae, Nordal (University of Oslo), Shakkie Kativu (University of Zimbabwe) & Axel D. Poulsen (University of Copenhagen). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1997

    Habit
    A variable complex of plants with ± lax leaves and peduncles, sometimes drying blackish.
    Rhizomes
    Rhizome short, vertical or sometimes horizontal with elongated internodes; roots ± spongy, often with spindle-shaped tubers.
    Leaves
    Leaves rosulate, petiolate or not, lanceolate to strap-shaped, usually glabrous, 10–60(–100) cm. long, 1–3(–4) cm. wide, sometimes with scabrid margin.
    Peduncles
    Peduncles often more than one to a plant, 5–20(–50) cm. long, erect to ± drooping, glabrous to scabrid, with a few sterile bracts just below the inflorescence.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 10–50(–75 cm.), usually simple, sometimes ± paniculate; rhachis sometimes somewhat scabrid, internode elongation varies considerably giving dense to extremely lax inflorescences; floral bracts 5–20 mm., acute to acuminate.
    Vegetative Multiplication
    Small plantlets often produced from the bracts of the inflorescence (pseudovivipary).
    Pedicel
    Pedicels articulated in upper half, 4–10 mm. long, slightly reflexed during anthesis, erect in fruit, 2–4-nate at the lower nodes.
    Perianth
    Perianth slightly urceolate, whitish, often keeled greenish outside and apically; tepals patent to somewhat reflexed at anthesis, 4–7 mm. long, 2–3 mm. wide, 3-veined, with scabrid margins.
    Stamens
    Stamens exserted; filaments fusiform, dilated above the middle, scabrid to papillose, 3–5 mm. long, longer than the 1–2.5 mm. long, versatile anthers.
    Style
    Style straight, as long as the stamens.
    Fruits
    Capsule triquetrous to deltate, emarginate, usually somewhat broader than long, 4–9 mm. long, 5–9(–11) mm. wide.
    Seeds
    Seeds saucer-shaped, slightly folded, 2–3 mm. in diameter.
    Habitat
    Undergrowth in rain-forest and riverine forest on brown to black loamy clay, also in crevices in rocks along streams, sometimes epiphytic or penetrating into more open and drier areas (or persists when the forest disappears); sea-level to 2450 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 a widespread complex species of rain-forest areas of Africa south of the Sahara, from West, Central and East Africa including Ethiopia, southwards to the Cape.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Ecuador, Gabon, Juan Fernández Is., Korea, Marianas, Mauritius, Nauru, New South Wales, Norfolk Is., Réunion, Seychelles, St.Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Tunisia, Western Australia

    Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2000 Last, J.T. [s.n.], Mozambique K000256936 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1992 Kirk [s.n.], Tanzania K000256905 holotype
    Jan 1, 1992 Swynnerton, C.F.M. [318], Mozambique K000256934 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1992 Swynnerton, C.F.M. [318], Mozambique K000256935 Unknown type material
    Hepper, F.N. [5180], Tanzania 34330.000
    Burchell [3650], South Africa K000256979 Unknown type material
    Monteiro [s.n.], Mozambique K000256933 holotype
    Wild, H. [3839], Zimbabwe Chlorophytum gazense 5439.000
    Drummond, R.B. [3052], Tanzania Chlorophytum inopinum 4431.000
    Polhill, R. [2322], Tanzania Chlorophytum kirkii 29370.000
    Drummond, R.B. [4335], Kenya Chlorophytum limurense 5440.000

    First published in J. Soc. Imp. Centr. Hort. 8: 345 (1862)

    Accepted by

    • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2018). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 9 Willdenowia 48: 195-220.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Meerts, P. & Bjorå, C.S. (2012). Synopsis of the genus Chlorophytum (Asparagaceae) in Central Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Burundi) Plant ecology and evolution 145: 373-409.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Demissew, S. & Nordal, I. (2010). Aloes and other Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea, ed, 2: 1-351. Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2008). Flora Zambesiaca 13(1): 1-140. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
    • Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds.) (2004). A Checklist of Zimbabwean Vascular Plants: 1-148. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network (SABONET), Pretoria.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • George, A.S. (ed.) (1987). Flora of Australia 45: 1-521. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1987). A Geographical Checklist of the Micronesian Monocotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 20: 19-129.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1978). Flore des Mascareignes 177-188 IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • ―Nordal, Kativu & Poulsen in F.T.E.A., Anthericaceae: 55 (1997).
    • ―Kativu in Kirkia 15: 57 (1994).
    • ―Obermeyer in Bothalia 7: 698 (1962).
    • in F.C. 6: 400 (1897).
    • ―Baker in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 15: 329 (1876);
    • in J. Soc. Imp. Centr. Hort. 8: 345 (1862).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2018). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 9 Willdenowia 48: 195-220.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flore du Gabon 41: 1-75. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2008). Flora Zambesiaca 13(1): 1-140. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • George, A.S. (ed.) (1987). Flora of Australia 45: 1-521. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1987). A Geographical Checklist of the Micronesian Monocotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 20: 19-129.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1978). Flore des Mascareignes 177-188 IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Nordal in Fl. Ethiopia 6: 102 (1997).
    • Agnew, A.D.Q. & Agnew, S., Upland Kenya Wild Flowers, ed. 2: 318 (1994).
    • Nordal & Thulin in Nordic Journ. Bot. 13: 262 (1993).
    • Oberm. in Bothalia 7: 698 (1962).
    • J.M. Watt & Breyer-Brandwyk, Medic. & Pois. Pl. S. Afr.: 13 (1932)
    • J.M. Wood, Natal Pl. 3: 279 (1902).
    • Baker in Fl. Cap. 6: 400 (1897).
    • Baker in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 15: 329 (1876)
    • Jacq. in Journ. Soc. Imp. Centr. Hort. 8: 345 (1862).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0