1. Family: Asparagaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Dracaena Vand. ex L.
      1. Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker Gawl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FWTA]

    Agavaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Habit
    Shrub about 5 ft. high
    Flowers
    Flowers white with pink lines, very fragrant
    Ecology
    In drier lowland forest.
    [FTEA]

    Dracenaceae, Geoffrey Mwachala & Paul Mbugua, Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2007

    Habit
    Shrub or tree, 1.5–15 m high; stem single, up to 30 cm in diameter, or in forest often with a mass of horizontal stems near the ground from which vertical stems arise
    Leaves
    Leaves strap-shaped to oblanceolate, sessile, (7–)20–150 cm long, 2–12 cm wide, base attenuate, widening for 2–5 cm and sheathing the stem, apex acute with subulate mucro
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence erect, rarely pendent, paniculate, 15–160 cm long; flowers in multiflowered glomerules; pedicels 2–6 mm long, articulated below the middle
    Flowers
    Buds purple or pink, flowers with tube white, the lobes white with a fine red to purple line down the centre, darker outside, (15–)17–22(–25) mm long, tube 5–11 mm long, lobes 7–12 mm long, up to 3 mm wide
    Fruits
    Fruits bright orange, depressed globose, 11–19 mm in diameter, lobed when several-seeded; seeds white turning brown, globose to bean-shaped, 4–14 mm in diameter.
    Distribution
    Throughout tropical Africa
    Ecology
    Moist forest, often near streams; may be locally common and may form thickets; 600–2250 m
    Conservation
    Least concern
    Note
    {i}D. deremensis {/i}var. {i}warneckei {/i}of T.T.C.L. : 20 (1949) is a cultivar of {i}D. fragrans {/i}(L.) KerGawl.; see Bos {i}et al{/i}. in Edin. J. Bot. 49(3): 311–331 (1992).
    [FWTA]

    Agavaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Habit
    Shrub of upland forest above 4, 000 ft. and commonly planted as a hedge, with several stems 8 or 9 ft. high
    Flowers
    Flowers white with pink lines
    [FWTA]

    Agavaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Habit
    A shrub used for hedges or developing into a tree up to 30 ft. high, branched at the base and above, bearing near the top a large crown of leaves several feet long
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle about 2 ft. long, arising amongst the leaves
    Flowers
    Flowers yellowish green or white tinged red, opening at night, very fragrant
    Ecology
    In drier forest.
    [FTEA]
    Use
    Used for hedges/living fences

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Haiti, Leeward Is., Malaya, Marianas, Mexico Southeast, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Senegal, Society Is., Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker Gawl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2006 Tchiengue, B. [2278], Cameroon K000437429
    Jun 1, 2004 Congdon, T.C.E. [631], Tanzania K000522808
    Dec 1, 2003 Jannerup [280], Tanzania K000522809
    Jan 1, 2002 Mhoro, B. [431], Tanzania K000522814
    Jan 1, 2002 Cable, S. [1207], Cameroon K000025684
    Jan 1, 2002 Ryan, P. [271], Cameroon K000025685
    Jan 1, 2001 Greenway, P.J. [6683], Tanzania K000522791
    Jan 1, 2001 Beentje, H.J. [915], Kenya K000522780
    Jan 1, 2001 Bjornstad, A.B. [AB565], Uganda K000522773
    Oct 4, 2000 Matthew, K.M. [RHT62043] K000401253
    Dec 1, 1998 Thomas, D.W. [9253], Cameroon K000436815
    Jan 1, 1998 Lane, P. [350], Cameroon K000025681
    Jan 1, 1998 Cheek, M. [7045], Cameroon K000025682
    Jan 1, 1998 Cheek, M. [7114], Cameroon K000025683
    Jan 1, 1998 Cheek, M. [7193], Cameroon K000025680
    Jan 1, 1998 Cable, S. [834], Cameroon K000025686
    Jan 1, 1998 Cable, S. [834], Cameroon K000025687
    Feb 1, 1997 Deighton, F.C. [6109], Sierra Leone K000402209
    Feb 1, 1997 Bourne [5046], India K000401254
    Jan 1, 1997 Williams, D.E. [927], Bolivia K000523677
    May 1, 1995 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1535], Cameroon K000437422
    Jan 1, 1994 s.coll. [C-VS2067], Kenya K000522784
    Jan 1, 1991 Fernández Casas [11791], Equatorial Guinea K000402437
    Jan 1, 1991 Fernández Casas [11791], Equatorial Guinea K000402438
    Jan 1, 1990 Brunt, M. [965], Cameroon K000402435
    Jan 1, 1990 Greenway, P.J. [3136], Tanzania K000522802
    Jan 1, 1990 Greenway, P.J. [3136], Tanzania K000522803
    Jan 1, 1990 Greenway, P.J. [6089], Tanzania K000522807
    Jan 1, 1990 Greenway, P.J. [4917], Tanzania K000522815
    Jan 1, 1990 Eggeling, W.J. [1369/1423], Uganda K000522758
    Jan 1, 1990 Dalziel, J.M. [8348], Cameroon K000402436
    Jan 1, 1990 Osmaston, H.A. [2812], Uganda K000522768
    Jan 1, 1990 Chandler, P. [818], Uganda K000522748
    Jan 1, 1990 Chandler, P. [818], Uganda K000522749
    Jan 1, 1990 Chandler, P. [1942], Uganda K000522767
    Jan 1, 1990 Ujor, E. [FHI30305], Nigeria K000402222
    Jan 1, 1990 Boughey, A.S. [96], Equatorial Guinea K000402224
    Jan 1, 1990 Dale, I.R. [3766], Kenya K000522777
    Jan 1, 1990 Stauffer, H.U. [99], Congo, DRC K000402443
    Jan 1, 1990 Welwitch [3738], Angola K000523121
    Jan 1, 1990 Friis, I. [1999], Ethiopia K000522680
    Jan 1, 1990 Friis, I. [1999], Ethiopia K000522681
    Jan 1, 1990 Biegel, H.M. [2436], Zimbabwe K000523119
    Jan 1, 1990 Plowes, D.C.H. [2059], Zimbabwe K000523118
    Jan 1, 1990 Semsei, S.R. [3187], Tanzania K000522798
    Jan 1, 1990 Bally [B4271], Tanzania K000522801
    Jan 1, 1990 Swynnerton, C.F.M. [724], Zimbabwe K000523115
    Jan 1, 1990 Swynnerton, C.F.M. [6520], Zimbabwe K000523116
    Jan 1, 1990 Volkens [1416], Tanzania K000255937 isotype
    Jan 1, 1990 Perdue, R.E. [9400], Kenya K000522781
    Jan 1, 1990 Lebrun [4763], Congo, DRC K000402441
    Jan 1, 1990 Pawek, J. [7065], Malawi K000523114
    Jan 1, 1990 Lye, K.A. [Ly6413], Uganda K000522759
    Jan 1, 1990 Evans, I.B.P. [1730], Uganda K000522769
    Jan 1, 1990 Evans, I.B.P. [s.n.], Uganda K000522771
    Jan 1, 1990 Meyer, F.G. [7872], Ethiopia K000522676
    Jan 1, 1990 Meyer, F.G. [8945], Ethiopia K000522686
    Jan 1, 1990 Ford, J. [776], Tanzania K000522799
    Jan 1, 1990 Synnott, T.J. [1022], Uganda K000522754
    Jan 1, 1990 Purseglove, J.W. [P.637], Uganda K000522765
    Jan 1, 1990 Purseglove, J.W. [P.637], Uganda K000522766
    Jan 1, 1990 Renvoize, S.A. [1604], Tanzania K000522804
    Jan 1, 1990 s.coll. [Herb. Amani455], Tanzania K000522805
    Jan 1, 1990 Bruce [791], Tanzania K000522806
    Jan 1, 1990 Jack. [427], Kenya K000522774
    Jan 1, 1990 Proctor, J. [661], Tanzania K000522800
    Jan 1, 1990 Morkel, A.R. [4516], Zimbabwe K000523120
    Jan 1, 1984 Whitfield? [s.n.], Guinea K000255904 lectotype
    Jan 1, 1982 Friis, I. [1227], Sudan K000522674
    Feb 1, 1979 Collins, D.J. [1435], Thailand K000523724
    Feb 1, 1979 Whyte, A. [s.n.] K000522772
    Feb 1, 1979 Henty, E.E. [NGF 49280], New Guinea K000523723
    Feb 1, 1979 ? Jack ? [5195], Kenya K000522787
    Mar 21, 1968 Erens, J. [1730], Uganda K000522770
    Feb 13, 1947 van Someren, C. [7328], Uganda K000522760
    Dawkins, H.C. [503], Uganda 15170.000
    Dawkins, H.C. [540], Uganda K000522755
    Dawkins, H.C. [503], Uganda K000522756
    Dawkins, H.C. [503], Uganda K000522757
    Bally, P.R.O. [5778], Tanzania K000522778
    Bally, P.R.O. [5720], Kenya K000522785
    Onochie, C.F.A. [FHI34342], Nigeria K000402218
    Eggeling, W.J. [E.3399], Uganda K000522761
    Eggeling, W.J. [E.3532], Uganda K000522762
    Eggeling, W.J. [E.3828], Uganda K000522763
    Eggeling, W.J. [E.3828], Uganda K000522764
    Vigne, C. [3500], Ghana K000402212
    Deighton, F.C. [2452], Sierra Leone K000402201
    Deighton, F.C. [2453], Sierra Leone K000402202
    Deighton, F.C. [4586], Sierra Leone K000402203
    Deighton, F.C. [4586], Sierra Leone K000402204
    Deighton, F.C. [4001], Sierra Leone K000402205
    Deighton, F.C. [4001], Sierra Leone K000402206
    Deighton, F.C. [4616], Sierra Leone K000402207
    Deighton, F.C. [4616], Sierra Leone K000402208
    Dalziel, J.M. [8254], Sierra Leone K000402198
    Dalziel, J.M. [8254], Sierra Leone K000402199
    Chevalier, A. [14784], Guinea K000402200
    Hepper, F.N. [8114], Côte d'Ivoire K000402211
    Tanner, R. [5053], Tanzania K000522797
    Scott Elliot, G.F. [7264], Uganda K000255938 Unknown type material
    Scott Elliot, G.F. [7439], Uganda K000522750
    Gilbert, M.G. [4222], Ethiopia K000522683
    Eggeling, W.G. [3828], Uganda 16716.000
    Thomas, A.S. [Th836], Uganda K000522752
    Faulkner, H.G. [1186], Tanzania K000522788
    Faulkner, H.G. [1186], Tanzania K000522789
    Faulkner, H.G. [1186], Tanzania K000522790
    Bally [5720], Kenya 42833.000
    Smith, A.C. [9442], Fiji K000402046
    Smith, A.C. [9442], Fiji K000402047
    Cribb, P. [11079], Tanzania K000522811
    Friis, I. [1959], Ethiopia K000522678
    Friis, I. [1959], Ethiopia K000522679
    Friis, I. [2186], Ethiopia K000522682
    Friis, I. [9782], Ethiopia K000522685
    Friis, I. [6035], Ethiopia K000522687
    Hall, J.B. [1826], Ghana K000402213
    Hall, J.B. [GC42394], Ghana K000402216
    Archbold, M.E. [2894], Tanzania K000522810
    Campbell 34508.000
    Swaine [GC43792], Ghana K000402214
    Swaine [GC43792], Ghana K000402215
    Methuen [175], Zimbabwe K000523117
    Congdon, T.C.E. [413], Tanzania K000522794
    Congdon, T.C.E. [413], Tanzania K000522795
    Mwasumbi, L.B. [13875], Tanzania K000522812
    de Wilde, W.J.J.O. [10240], Ethiopia K000522684
    Jackson, T.H.E. [338], Kenya K000522775
    Jackson, T.H.E. [338], Kenya K000522776
    Luke, P.A. [4166], Kenya K000522782
    Luke, P.A. [4166], Kenya K000522783
    van Someren [Sh.Sh.99], Kenya K000522779
    Etuge, M. [1202], Cameroon K000540344
    Talbot, P.A. [1412], Nigeria K000402223
    Schlieben, H.J. [1687], Tanzania K000522792
    Kersting [A366], Togo K000402197
    Dummer, R.A. [4554], Uganda K000522751
    Lebrun [4763], Congo, DRC K000522627
    Malaisse, F. [4264], Côte d'Ivoire K000522628
    Speke [612] K000522747
    Aké Assi, L. [9417], Côte d'Ivoire K000402210
    Meyer, F.G. [9017], Ethiopia K000522675
    Meyer, F.G. [7852], Ethiopia K000522677
    Moore, T. [s.n.] K000402226
    Mwangoka, M.A. [4245], Tanzania K000524024
    Balsinhas, A. [2388], Mozambique K000523113
    Watkins, G. [474], Tanzania K000522793
    Onyeachusim [FHI54003], Nigeria K000402219
    Onyeachusim [FHI54003], Nigeria K000402220
    Onyeachusim [FHI54266], Nigeria K000402221
    Hansen, O.J. [888], Kenya K000522786
    Willan, R.L. [223], Tanzania K000522796
    Harris, T. [99], Mozambique K000613136
    Harris, T. [99], Mozambique K000545087
    Ghesquière [3884], Congo, DRC K000402442
    Katende [700], Uganda K000522753
    FitzGibbon, H. [11], Tanzania K000522813
    Timberlake, J. [5308], Malawi K000614655
    Timberlake, J. [5420], Mozambique K000614409
    Abeid, Y.S. [2199], Tanzania K000524025
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000402227
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000402228
    s.coll. [s.n.], South Africa K000402229
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000402440
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000523719
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000523720
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000523721
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000523722
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000523727
    Mphamba [119], Mozambique K000614325
    MacGregory, W.D. [437], Nigeria K000402191
    MacGregory, W.D. [437], Nigeria K000402217
    Ide [s.n.] K000402225
    Gavage [7], Gabon K000402439
    Yamada, T. [191], Congo, DRC K000402444
    Jan 1, 1987 Borhidi, A. [87237], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523045
    Feb 1, 1979 Greenway [1678] Dracaena deremensis K000523683
    Feb 1, 1979 Greenway [2367] Dracaena deremensis K000523684
    Greenway, P.J. [6441], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523042
    Renvoize, S.A. [1604], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis 7330.000
    Semsei, S.R. [3173], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523040
    Gardner, H.M. [3014], Kenya Dracaena deremensis K000523038
    Johnston, H.H. [176], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523041
    Borhidi, A. [82164], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523044
    [Proclier, J.] [661], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523039
    Azima, S. [674], Tanzania Dracaena deremensis K000523043
    Compère, P. [1434], Congo, DRC Dracaena butayei K000522610
    May 1, 2013 Etuge, M. [2319], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000798148
    May 1, 2013 Zapfack, L. [747], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000798147
    Jun 1, 2000 Keming, E. [40 FM], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000798149
    Feb 1, 1997 Wimbush, S.H. [FHI41823] Dracaena deisteliana K000402192
    Feb 1, 1997 Hambler, D. [179], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000402196
    Jan 1, 1991 Casas, F. [11957], Equatorial Guinea Dracaena deisteliana K000522614
    Feb 1, 1979 Boughey, A.S. [94], Equatorial Guinea Dracaena deisteliana K000522615
    Feb 1, 1979 Brenan, J.P.M. [9577], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522624
    Feb 1, 1979 Bauer, P.S. [139], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522616
    Feb 1, 1979 Bauer, P.S. [139], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522617
    Jan 1, 1976 Latilo, M.G. [FHI34370], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522612
    Jan 1, 1976 Coombe, D.E. [DEC95], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402190
    Jan 1, 1976 Tuley, P. [2115], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402187
    Jan 1, 1976 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [9260], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522613
    Jan 1, 1976 McClintock, A. [202], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402185
    Jan 1, 1976 McClintock, A. [202], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402186
    Jan 1, 1966 Dalziel, J.M. [8348], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000402195
    Jan 1, 1966 illegible [357], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522619
    Jan 1, 1966 Dundas [FHI20374], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402194
    Brunt, M. [626], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522618
    Chapman, J.D. [4230], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402188
    Chapman, J.D. [4645], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402193
    Hall, J.B. [1681], Nigeria Dracaena deisteliana K000402189
    Cable, S. [3405], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000025655
    Breteler, F.J. [MC178], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522623
    Etuge, M. [99], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522621
    Etuge, M. [99], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522622
    illegible [1328], Cameroon Dracaena deisteliana K000522620

    First published in Bot. Mag. 27: t. 1081 (1808)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Demissew, S. & Nordal, I. (2010). Aloes and other Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea, ed, 2: 1-351. Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Mwachala, G. & Mbugua, P.K. (2007). Dracaenaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-43.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • National Parks Board Singapore (2006). Vascular Plant Life Checklist Pulau Ubin www.nparks.gov.sg/nparks_cms/cms/cmsmgr/data/6/PlantChkList.xls.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.
    • Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis ed. 2: 1-382. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1987). A Geographical Checklist of the Micronesian Monocotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 20: 19-129.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Bot. Mag. 1081 (1808).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Mwachala, G. & Mbugua, P.K. (2007). Dracaenaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-43.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • National Parks Board Singapore (2006). Vascular Plant Life Checklist Pulau Ubin www.nparks.gov.sg/nparks_cms/cms/cmsmgr/data/6/PlantChkList.xls.
    • Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis ed. 2: 1-382. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Berhaut, J. (1988). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1987). A Geographical Checklist of the Micronesian Monocotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 20: 19-129.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Bos in Fl. Eth. & Eritr. 6: 77 (1997).
    • H. J. Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas p. 639 (1994)
    • Bos, Dracaena in W Afr.: 69, t. 13, photo 12 (1984)
    • Hamilton, Uganda forest trees: 78 (1981)
    • Hepper, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3 (1): 157 (1968)
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 21 (1949)
    • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 236 (1949)
    • Baker in Flora of Tropical Africa 7: 440 (1898)
    • Baker in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 14: 529 (1875)
    • Baker in Journal of Botany 12: 165 (1874)
    • Ker-Gawl. in Bot. Mag.: t. 1081 (1808)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0