1. Family: Colchicaceae DC.
    1. Genus: Gloriosa L.
      1. Gloriosa superba L.

        Flame lily is a tuberous herb, which is widespread in tropical and southern Africa and in tropical Asia. The generic name Gloriosa means 'full of glory' and the specific epithet superba means 'superb', alluding to the striking red and yellow flowers.

    [FWTA]

    Liliaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Habit
    Common forest climber
    Flowers
    Flowers turning from yellow to red.
    [FTEA]

    Colchicaceae, Kim Hoenselaar. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
    Herb, stem erect, simple or branched, sometimes not higher than 40 cm, or plant scandent or climbing, up to several meters long.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, sometimes opposite or verticillate and clustered, sometimes clustered above the middle of the stem, sessile, base sometimes sheathing the stem, ranging from linear, elliptic-lanceolate, elliptic to ovate, 6–17.5 cm long, 0.4–5 cm wide, apex acute, acuminate, falcate or ending in a tendril.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary, sometimes terminal, different shades of yellow, orange, red, crimson, purple/mauve stripes or fading purple, often bicolored; pedicel erect, recurved apically, 3.5–18 cm long.
    Perianth
    Perianth sometimes at the base connate into a short tube, up to 2 mm long; perianth segments (strongly) reflexed, base clawed, narrowly elliptic-linear, oblong-lanceolate, sometimes ovate to obovate, 29–85 mm long, 4–25(–38) mm wide, the margins sometimes crisped,apex acuminate to acute, sometimes falcate.
    Stamens
    Filaments filiform, sometimes flattened, 10–45 mm long; anthers straight to curved, 5.5–15 mm long.
    Pistil
    Ovary 4–13 mm long, 1–5 mm wide; style 9–50 mm long.
    Fruits
    Capsule 37–50 mm long, 10–14 mm in diameter; seeds 4 mm.
    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    Flame lily is a climber with spectacular red and yellow flowers, but all parts of the plant (especially the tubers) are extremely poisonous and can be fatal if eaten.

    Flame lily is a tuberous herb, which is widespread in tropical and southern Africa and in tropical Asia. The generic name Gloriosa means 'full of glory' and the specific epithet superba means 'superb', alluding to the striking red and yellow flowers.

    All parts of the plant, but especially the tubers (swollen, underground stems), are extremely poisonous and the ingestion of flame lily has caused many accidental deaths. It has also been used to commit murder, suicide, to induce abortions and to poison dogs. African porcupines and some moles are reputed to be able to consume the roots with no ill effects.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Native to tropical and southern Africa, and temperate and tropical Asia (where it occurs in China, Indochina and from the Indian Subcontinent to the Lesser Sunda Islands). It has been found up to 2,500 m above sea level. It is widely naturalised (including in Europe and Australia) and is listed as a weed in Australia and in some parts of the USA. Gloriosa superba is common throughout much of its range. However, in some areas of India (Patalkot, Chhindwara District), Bangladesh and Sri Lanka it has been assessed as rare, and natural populations are believed to be in decline. In the Indian state of Orissa, for example, where G. superba used to be common, it is now on the verge of extinction according to the Wildlife Institute of India.

    Description

    A perennial, tuberous, climbing (sometimes erect) herb, up to 4 m long. The leaves are simple (undivided). The leaf blade has strong, parallel nerves and ends in a tendril-like spiral. The solitary flowers are bisexual, showy, pendulous and 4.5-7 cm in diameter. The pedicel (flower stalk) can be up to 20 cm long. The flowers are usually red and yellow with crisply waved margins. The fruit is a large (up to 6 cm long), oblong capsule. It is thought that pollination is probably carried out by butterflies and sunbirds.

    Threats and conservation

    Flame lily is in decline in some areas of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and southern Africa, due to over-collection of the seeds and tubers. Although commercially cultivated in southern India, it is estimated that pharmacies and drug manufacturers in India fulfil up to 75% of their raw material demand from wild populations.

    Conservation assessments carried out by Kew

    Gloriosa superba is being monitored as part of the Sampled Red List Index Project, which aims to produce conservation assessments for a representative sample of the world's plant species. This information will then be used to monitor trends in extinction risk and help focus conservation efforts where they are needed most.

    Learn more about this project

    Uses

    Flame lily has a wide variety of uses, especially within traditional medicine as practised in tropical Africa and Asia (including Ayurvedic medicine in India). It contains the alkaloid colchicine, which has been used effectively to treat acute gout, intestinal worms, infertility, wounds and other skin problems. It has also been used as an antidote for snake bite, as a laxative, and to induce abortion. It has proven useful in the treatment of chronic ulcers, arthritis, cholera, colic, kidney problems and typhus.

    Colchicine is widely used as an experimental tool in the study of cell division, as it can inhibit mitosis (a type of cell division), induce polyploidy (cells containing more than two sets of chromosomes), and has been used in the treatment of cancer.

    Gloriosa superba is widely cultivated as an ornamental for its stunning flowers. It is the national flower of Zimbabwe (where it is protected from illegal harvesting under the Parks and Wildlife Act).

    This species at Kew

    Flame lily can be seen growing in the Temperate House, Palm House and Waterlily House at Kew.

    Dried and alcohol-preserved specimens of Gloriosa superba are held in Kew's Herbarium, where they are available to researchers from around the world, by appointment. The details of some of these, including images, can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    Specimens of flame lily tubers are also held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection, where they are available for study, by appointment.

    Distribution
    China
    Ecology
    Sparse savanna woodlands, grasslands, sand dunes, in abandoned fields or at the boundaries of cultivated ground and roadsides; in sandy-loam soil.
    Conservation
    Least Concern according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    All parts of the plant are extremely poisonous due to the presence of toxic alkaloids, including colchicine; ingestion can be fatal; contact can result in skin irritation.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Medicinal, ornamental.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, Congo, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cook Is., Fiji, Gilbert Is., Line Is., Nauru, New South Wales, Norfolk Is., Queensland, Réunion, Santa Cruz Is., Society Is., Solomon Is., Suriname, Tokelau-Manihiki, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

    Common Names

    English
    Climbing lily, Flame lily, Superb lily

    Gloriosa superba L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2007 Tchiengue, B. [2772], Cameroon K000518671
    Dec 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [4359 r], Cameroon K000212735
    Mar 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1749], Cameroon K000025718
    Mar 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [2189], Cameroon K000025720
    May 1, 1995 Cable, S. [10], Cameroon K000011652
    Jan 1, 1995 Cheek, M. [5706], Cameroon K000011653
    Jan 1, 1995 Cheek, M. [5721], Cameroon K000011654
    Jan 1, 1995 Ndam, N. [184], Cameroon K000542353
    Jan 1, 1994 Mooney, H.F. [8815], Ethiopia K000480416
    Jan 1, 1994 Schimper [1437], Ethiopia K000365966 isotype
    Jan 1, 1994 Schimper [1437], Ethiopia K000365967 isotype
    Jan 1, 1994 Quartin-Dillon [48], Ethiopia K000365965 isosyntype
    Jan 1, 1994 Amshoff, G.J.H. [7614], Ethiopia K000480417
    Jan 1, 1994 Turton, D. [76], Ethiopia K000480413
    Feb 3, 1924 Wight, R. [5757], Nepal K000524985
    6606.000
    Ash [575], Ethiopia 37437.000
    Gilbert, M.G. [3136], Ethiopia K000480414
    Gilbert, M.G. [2195], Ethiopia K000480415
    Gilbert, M.G. [4657], Ethiopia K000480418
    Mathew, B. [42631], India K000480449
    Haswell, D.R. [134], Sierra Leone K000480436
    Brummitt, R.K. [8868], Malawi 34784.000
    Jayasuriya, A.H.M. [1439], Sri Lanka K000480446
    Hutton, I. [640], Australia K000480451
    T [141], Malaysia K000480450
    Carpenter, T. [275], Maldives K000480447
    Buwalda, P. [7156], Indonesia K000480445
    Phillipson, P.B. [4136], Madagascar K000480441
    Phillipson, P.B. [4136], Madagascar K000480442
    Sangkhachand, B. [1059], Thailand K000480443
    Rogers, F.A. [25245], South Africa K000480452
    Monyrak, M. [207], Cambodia K000480444
    Meller, C.J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000365963
    Meller, C.J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000365964 Unknown type material
    Pollard, B.J. [103], Cameroon K000025719
    Cecil, E. [224], Zimbabwe K000365961 holotype
    Thollon, M. [22], Gabon K000480430
    Alstrup, V. [156], Somalia K000480422
    Kasmi, S.M.A. [643], Somalia K000480419
    Wallich, N. [5757G], Nepal K000524984
    Synnott, T.J. [449], Somalia K000480420
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 5157], Myanmar K001104972
    Eagleton, G. [71], Somalia K000480423
    Pobéguin, C.H.O. [383], Guinea K000480434
    Pobéguin, C.H.O. [383], Guinea K000480435
    Xiulan, H. [281], China K000480448
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5157] K001104967
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5157] K001104968
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5157] K001104969
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5157] K001104970
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5157], Nepal K001104971
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5157] K001104973
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5157] K001104974
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5157] K001104975
    Stern, W.T. [s.n.] Gloriosa verschuurii K000524986 Unknown type material

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 305 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Bhattacharya, R.P., Pal, D.C. & Pati, B.R. (2014). A sytematic census of monocot climbers of Bihar anf Jharkhand states Indian Journal of Forestry 37: 317-324.
    • Geerinck, D. (2012). Contribution à la flore d' Afrique centrale: Colchicaceae et Flagellariaceae Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 33: 1-30.
    • Maroyi, A. (2012). The genus Gloriosa (Colchicaceae) - ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy: 1-194. Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flore du Gabon 41: 1-75. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Demissew, S. & Nordal, I. (2010). Aloes and other Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea, ed, 2: 1-351. Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2009). Flora Zambesiaca 12(2): 1-208. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Hoenselaar, K. (2005). Colchicaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-20.
    • Tanaka, N., Koyama, T. & Murata, J. (2005). The flowering plants of Mt. Popa, central Myanmar - Results of Myanmar-Japanese joint expeditions, 2000-2004 Makinoa 5: 1-102.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.
    • Zhengyi, W. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2000). Flora of China 24: 1-431. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (2000). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 14: 1-307. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Noltie, H.J. (1994). Flora of Bhutan 3(1): 1-456. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • H?, P.-H. (1993). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam 3(1): 1-603d. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • George, A.S. (ed.) (1987). Flora of Australia 45: 1-521. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1987). A Geographical Checklist of the Micronesian Monocotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 20: 19-129.
    • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vasular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Smith, A.C. (1979). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 1: 1-495. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Smitinand, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (1978). Flora of Thailand 1: 1-694. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1978). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 1: 1-154. Trustees of British Museum, London.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) (1948-1954). Flora Malesiana 4: 1-631. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.

    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles
    • Jana, S. & Shekhawat, G.S. (2011). Critical review on medicinally potent plant species: Gloriosa superba. Fitoterapia 82: 293-301.
    • World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2011). Gloriosa superba. Published on the Internet by the Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dauncey, E.A. (2010). Poisonous Plants: A Guide for Parents & Childcare Providers. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Contu, S. (2008). Gloriosa superba. Assessment using IUCN Categories and Criteria 3.1 (IUCN 2001). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Rawat, G.S. (ed.) (2008). Special habitats and threatened plants of India. ENVIS Bulletin Wildlife and Protected Areas 11(1). Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun.
    • Nellis, D.W. (1997). Poisonous Plants and Animals of Florida and the Caribbean. Pineapple Press Inc.
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Morton, W. Afr. Lilies & Orch. fig. 12.
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. 148
    • F.T.A. 7: 563
    • Bot. Reg. 1: t. 77
    • Andr., Bot. Rep. t. 129
    • Sp. Pl. 305 (1753)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Geerinck, D. (2012). Contribution à la flore d' Afrique centrale: Colchicaceae et Flagellariaceae Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 33: 1-30.
    • Maroyi, A. (2012). The genus Gloriosa (Colchicaceae) - ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy: 1-194. Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2009). Flora Zambesiaca 12(2): 1-208. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Hoenselaar, K. (2005). Colchicaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-20.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (2000). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 14: 1-307. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • George, A.S. (ed.) (1987). Flora of Australia 45: 1-521. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vasular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) (1979-1983). Flora Malesiana 9: 1-600. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
    • Smith, A.C. (1979). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 1: 1-495. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Maroyi in Kirkia 18(1): 3 (2002).
    • Demissew in Fl. Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: 184–185 (1997).
    • Thulin in Fl. Somalia 4: 67–68 (1995).
    • Hanid in Upland Kenya Wild Flowers ed. 2: 322, t. 149 (1994).
    • Blundell in Wild Fl. E. Africa: 423, t. 409, 488 (1987).
    • Field in Kew Bulletin 25: 243–244 (1971).
    • Hepper in Flora of West Tropical Africa 3 (1): 106 (1968).
    • Baker in Flora of Tropical Africa 7: 563 (1898).
    • Baker in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 17 (103): 457 (1879)
    • L. in Sp. Pl. 2: 437 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/