1. Family: Smilacaceae Vent.
    1. Genus: Smilax L.
      1. Smilax aspera L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Medit. to Myanmar and S. Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Smilacaceae, E.J. Cowley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

    Habit
    Climbing or creeping, glabrous shrub to 15 m.
    Stem
    Stems 4-6-angled, flexuose, unarmed or prickly.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate; petiole 1-2 cm., not thickened towards apex, with long tendrils inserted at base; blade triangular, oblong, ovate, lanceolate, sometimes reniform, sometimes blotched with white, 3-15 cm. long, 2-7 cm. broad, acute to acuminate at the apex, cordate, hastate, truncate or sagittate at the base, coriaceous to subcoriaceous, 5-9-nerved, petiole, margins, adaxial midrib and nerves beneath sometimes prickly, prickles 1-3 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of sessile and subsessile umbels, inserted distichously along an extended flexuose rhachis, 1.5-15 cm. long; bracteoles very small; pedicels 2-9 mm., longer than the flowers.
    Perianth
    Perianth-segments linear-oblong to elliptic, obtuse, 2-4(-5) × 1 mm., white, cream, greenish, pink, yellowish or brownish, fragrant; inner segments equal to or more often shorter and narrower than outer.
    Stamens
    Stamens shorter than the perianth; anthers yellow-green, shorter than the filaments.
    Staminodes
    Staminodes 6.
    Pistil
    Ovary green; stigmas oblong, recurved.
    Fruits
    Berry red or black, 5-8 mm. wide, 3-seeded.
    Figures
    Fig. 1.
    Habitat
    Edges, clearings and rocky places of upland evergreen forest and associated bushland or thicket, often in damp places near rivers and marshes; 1450-2745 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 T3 T4 T6 T7 U2 common in most parts of western Europeeast Mediterranean countries of Turkey, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordanthe Canary Is. and north African countries of Morocco, Algeria and Libyaeastern Africa in Ethiopia and south to Zaire, Zambia and Malawialso in India along the Himalayan range, Assam, Madras and Sri Lanka

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Malawi, Turkey-in-Europe

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Assam, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Canary Is., China South-Central, Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Greece, India, Iran, Italy, Kenya, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Sardegna, Sicilia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Tibet, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, West Himalaya, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre

    Smilax aspera L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10966], Tanzania 24784.000
    Hooker, J.D. [s.n.], Assam K000820905
    Wight, R. [5122], Indian Subcontinent K000820904
    Blinkworth, R. [5113], Uttar Pradesh K000820903
    Sep 14, 1905 Lowe, R.T. [670], Madeira Smilax pendulina K000432431
    Lowe, R. T. [273], Madeira Smilax pendulina K000432430

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1028 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Demissew, S. & Nordal, I. (2010). Aloes and other Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea, ed, 2: 1-351. Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Zhengyi, W. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2000). Flora of China 24: 1-431. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (2000). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 14: 1-307. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Noltie, H.J. (1994). Flora of Bhutan 3(1): 1-456. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Rechinger, K.H., Browicz, K., Persson, K. & Wendelbo, P. (1990). Flora Iranica 165: 1-194. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Cowley, E.J. (1989). Smilacaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-4.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1985). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 3. revised edition Sommerfeltia 1: 5-103.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1984). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 8: 1-632. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Jafri, S.M.H. & El-Gadi, A. (eds.) (1978). Flora of Libya 57: 1-81. Al-Faateh University, Tripoli.
    • Ghazanfar, S. (1977). Flora of Pakistan 107: 1-5. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2009). Flora Zambesiaca 12(2): 1-208. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Zhengyi, W. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2000). Flora of China 24: 1-431. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Noltie, H.J. (1994). Flora of Bhutan 3(1): 1-456. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Rechinger, K.H., Browicz, K., Persson, K. & Wendelbo, P. (1990). Flora Iranica 165: 1-194. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Cowley, E.J. (1989). Smilacaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-4.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1985). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 3. revised edition Sommerfeltia 1: 5-103.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1984). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 8: 1-632. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1978). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 1: 1-154. Trustees of British Museum, London.
    • Jafri, S.M.H. & El-Gadi, A. (eds.) (1978). Flora of Libya 57: 1-81. Al-Faateh University, Tripoli.
    • Ghazanfar, S. (1977). Flora of Pakistan 107: 1-5. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Maire, R. (1958). Flore de l'Afrique du Nord 5: 1-307. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • A. & C. DC., Monogr. Phan. 1:163 (1878).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 1028 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/