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  1. Family: Acanthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Ruellia Plum. ex L.
      1. Ruellia patula Jacq.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa to Indian Subcontinent.

    [FTEA]

    Acanthaceae (part 2), Kaj Vollesen. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

    Type
    Type: Cult. in Hort. Vienna from seeds from India, probably not preserved
    Habit
    Perennial or shrubby herb or subshrub; stems to 0.6(–1) m long, erect to trailing, when young subglabrous to densely puberulous, pubescent or pilose, sometimes with stalked capitate glands
    Leaves
    Leaves with petiole 2–32 mm long; lamina ovate to elliptic or narrowly so (rarely lanceolate), largest 1–6 × 0.5–3.7 cm, apex acute to rounded (rarely retuse), base cuneate to truncate, sparsely to densely puberulous to pubescent (rarely subglabrous), densest along veins, sometimes with scattered capitate glands. Flowers solitary or in 3(–5)-flowered axillary cymes; peduncles in cymes 1–6(–12) mm long; pedicels 0–2(–5) mm long, glabrous to puberulous; bracteoles (bracts in cymes) ovate-elliptic or narrowly so, 7–18 × 3–8 mm
    Calyx
    Calyx 3–8(–9) mm long, divided to 1–2 mm from base, uniformly puberulous or with ciliate lobes and midribs or glabrous; lobes narrowly triangular
    Corolla
    Corolla falling early in the morning, white to mauve or purple; tube (10–)12–34 mm long of which the basal cylindric part 3–12(–20) mm and the throat (7–)9–19 mm long; lobes 4–15 × 3–15 mm, ovate-elliptic or broadly so with entire to crenate-dentate margin. Stamens included in throat (rarely slightly exserted), didynamous, anthers not or slightly overlapping; filaments fused for 1–3 mm at base, free parts 2–5 and 3–7 mm long; anthers 1.5–2.5 mm long
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous.
    Stigma
    Ventral stigma lobe 1–1.5 × ± 0.5 mm
    Fruits
    Capsule clavate, glabrous, 11–20(–22) mm long, (4–)6–14(–16)-seeded
    Seeds
    Seed broadly ellipsoid to circular, dark brown, 3–4.5 × 2.5–4.5 mm
    Figures
    Fig 31: 1-9, p206
    Ecology
    In a wide range of grassland, bushland, woodland, forest margins and riverine forest, persisting in disturbed areas, on an equally wide range of soil types; near sea level to 2100 m
    Note
    The lower cylindrical part of the corolla tube is normally shorter than the throat. But in scattered collections (e.g. Polhill & Paulo 2267, Singida District: Singida–Sekenke road) throughout Kenya and Tanzania the lower part of the tube is longer than the throat. In all other characters these collections are typical and I see no reason to treat them as a separate taxon. Further south in tropical Africa this latter condition becomes the norm; here scattered specimens with short lower tube occur throughout the area. Plants from the dry northern, eastern and central parts are usually erect, have a short often dense indumentum usually with capitate glands intermixed. Plants from the central and western highland areas are erect to decumbent and have a sparse to dense indumentum of longer pilose hairs. Similar trailing plants also occur along the coast where they have sometimes been named as R. cordata. But this is a species with – as the name implies – cordate or subcordate leaves from southern Africa only extending north into Zimbabwe and Mozambique R. patula is an excessively variable species, but without extensive field-work not much progress can be made in separating out infraspecific (? or specific) taxa.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: T1 T2 T3 T4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K 7 T1 T2 T3T5 T6 T7 T8 Z P Range: Niger, Central African Republic, Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa; Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, India

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Ruellia patula Jacq. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Drummond, R.B. [4269], Kenya 4288.000
    Chevalier, A. [6592], Central African Republic K000394004 lectotype
    Gossweiler, J. [370], Angola K001009386
    Bidgood, S. [BO/07], Botswana K000823858
    Luke, Q. [12759], Tanzania K000662482
    Welwitsch [5009], Angola K001009384
    Welwitsch [5127], Angola K001009387
    Pearson, H.H.W. [2830], Angola K001009383
    Schinz [14], Namibia K001009380
    Schinz [14], Namibia K001009381
    Schimper, W. [874], Saudi Arabia K000882521 isotype
    Bent, J.T.H. [107], Oman K000882522
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2385] K001115829
    s.coll. [s.n.], Angola K001009382
    s.coll. [21], Angola K001009385
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 7186] Dipteracanthus erectus K001126842

    Bibliography

    First published in Misc. Austriac. 2: 358 (1779)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Vollesen, K. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(5): 1-184. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Rechinger, K.H. (1966). Flora Iranica 24: 1-9. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Hooker, Ic. Pl., ser. 5, 7: t. 3690 (1971)
    • F.E.E. 5: 389 (2006)
    • Fl. Somalia 3: 395 (2006).
    • Biol. Skr. 51(2): 453 (2005)
    • Lebrun & Stork, Enum. Pl. Afr. Trop. 4: 501 (1997)
    • U.K.W.F., ed. 2: 270 (1994)
    • Hepper & Friis, Pl. Forssk. Fl. Aeg.-Arab.: 69 (1994)
    • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 395, pl. 612 & 802 (1987)
    • Fl. Rwanda 3: 483, fig. 147 (1985)
    • Opera Bot. 59: 81 (1980)
    • U.K.W.F.: 583 (1974)
    • E.P.A.: 938 (1964)
    • F.P.S. 3: 187, fig. 50 (1956)
    • K.B. 1933: 94 (1934)
    • Chiovenda, Fl. Somala 2: 348 (1932)
    • Fiori, Boschi e Piante Legn. Eritrea: 345 (1912)
    • F.T.A. 5: 45 (1899)
    • Misc. Bot. 2: 358 (1781)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/