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  1. Family: Santalaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Viscum L.
      1. Viscum combreticola Engl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Kenya to S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Viscaceae, R. M. Polhill & D. Wiens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1999

    Habit
    Leafless dioecious shrubs of relatively large size, with stems up to 1–2 m. long, usually pendulous with age, often yellowish green; internodes of distal branches 20–35 mm. long, 4–6 mm. wide, flattened and strongly ribbed, rounded with age.
    Bracts
    Bracteal cups and flowers of both sexes sessile.
    Flowers
    Staminate flowers in triads (occasionally dyads), sessile, solitary in the axils of scale-leaves of younger branches, but often in fascicles of 4–8 on older stems. Pistillate flowers borne singly.
    Male
    Staminate flowers in triads (occasionally dyads), sessile, solitary in the axils of scale-leaves of younger branches, but often in fascicles of 4–8 on older stems.
    Female
    Pistillate flowers borne singly.
    Pistil
    Style indistinct at maturity; stigma rounded, emerging directly from the slightly elevated summit of the ovary.
    Fruits
    Berries sessile, rotund-ellipsoid, 6–7 mm. high, apex truncated, tuberculate when young, but nearly smooth at maturity, orange; tepalar ring-scar not strongly differentiated, 4–5 mm. in diameter.
    Figures
    Fig. 5/8.
    Habitat
    Mixed woodland on a variety of hosts, commonly Combretum and various legumes, including Brachystegia; 900–2100 m.
    Distribution
    widespread in eastern and southern Africa, principally in a broad zone following the Rift Valleys, in E. Zaire, then south through Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe to South Africa (Gauteng) and also in Angola K3 K4 K6 T4 T6 T7 T8 U2 U3 U4
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Type
    Type from South Africa (Gauteng).
    Flowers
    Pistillate flowers borne singly Staminate flowers in triads (occasionally dyads), sessile, solitary in the axils of scale leaves of younger branches, but often in fascicles of 4–8 on older stems Staminate flowers in triads (occasionally dyads), sessile, solitary in the axils of scale leaves of younger branches, but often in fascicles of 4–8 on older stems. Pistillate flowers borne singly.
    Style
    Style indistinct at maturity; stigma rounded, emerging directly from the slightly elevated summit of the ovary
    Fruits
    Berries sessile, orange, 6–7 mm high, rotund-ellipsoid, tuberculate when young, but nearly smooth at maturity, apex truncated Berries sessile, orange, 6–7 mm high, rotund-ellipsoid, tuberculate when young, but nearly smooth at maturity, apex truncated.
    Perianth
    Ring scar left by perianth not strongly differentiated, 4–5 mm in diameter. Ring scar left by perianth not strongly differentiated, 4–5 mm in diameter.
    Ecology
    In mixed woodland, miombo and riverine associations; up to 2000 m; commonly on Combretum or legumes; flowering inconsistent, but primarily during the wet season (January–April).
    Note
    A widespread species exhibiting considerable variation, but no geographically consistent patterns are presently discernable. Vegetatively similar to V. shirense and V. cylindricum, from which it is difficult to distinguish sterile material. The latter species are identifiable by the male inflorescences, which are both single-flowered, as well as the fruits which are smaller and shortly pedicellate in V. shirense and cylindrical in V. cylindricum.
    Distribution
    Botswana Mozambique Also in Dem. Rep. Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Angola and South Africa (North-West, Limpopo, Gauteng and Mpumalanga Provinces), principally in a broad zone following the Rift Valleys. BOT SE Malawi ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N, MAL C, MOZ N, MOZ M ZIM W ZIM N Zimbabwe ZAM S ZAM E ZAM C ZAM N Zambia
    Habit
    Leafless, dioecious, shrubs of relatively large size, 1–3 m in extent, usually pendulous with age, often yellowish-green; internodes of distal branches 20–35 × 4–6 mm, flattened and strongly ribbed, rounded with age. Leafless, dioecious, shrubs of relatively large size, 1–3 m in extent, usually pendulous with age, often yellowish-green; internodes of distal branches 20–35 × 4–6 mm, flattened and strongly ribbed, rounded with age
    Bracts
    Bracteal cups and flowers of both sexes sessile. Bracteal cups and flowers of both sexes sessile
    Male
    Staminate flowers in triads (occasionally dyads), sessile, solitary in the axils of scale leaves of younger branches, but often in fascicles of 4–8 on older stems.
    Female
    Pistillate flowers borne singly.
    Pistil
    Style indistinct at maturity; stigma rounded, emerging directly from the slightly elevated summit of the ovary.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Free State, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Viscum combreticola Engl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1989 Kirk, J. [s.n.], Zambia K000431366
    Jan 1, 1989 Dawe, M.T. [473], Uganda K000431359 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1989 Sanderson [s.n.], South Africa K000431427
    Jan 1, 1989 Wallich [748], South Africa K000431425
    Jan 1, 1989 Burke [125], South Africa K000431426
    Worsdell, W.C. [s.n.], South Africa K000431423
    Polhill, R.M.&D [5254], Malawi 52384.000
    Engler [2840a], South Africa K000431424 Unknown type material
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10500], Tanzania Viscum ugandense 23005.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10636], Tanzania Viscum ugandense 23007.000

    Bibliography

    First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 40: 542 (1908)

    Accepted by

    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1999). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Viscaceae: 1-24.
    • Polhill, R.M. & Wiens, D. (1998). Mistletoes of Africa: 1-370. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • F.T.E.A., Viscaceae: 19, fig. 5/8 (1999). TAB. 43, fig. F.
    • Polhill & Wiens, Mistletoes Afr.: 303, photo. 137, fig. 40D (1998)
    • Visser, S. Afr. Parasitic Fl. Pl.: 27, t. 37 (1981).
    • Fl. Sthn. Africa 10, 1: 45, fig. 16/3 (1979).
    • Kirkia 9: 156 (1973).
    • Letty, Wild Fl. Transvaal: 121, t. 61/2 (1962).
    • F.C.B. 1: 380 (1948).
    • Gomes e Sousa, Subsíd. Estudo Fl. Niassa Port.: 53 (1935).
    • Burtt Davy, Fl. Pl. Ferns Transvaal, part 2: 467 (1932).
    • F.C. 5, 2: 130 (1915).
    • F.T.A. 6, 1: 404 (1911)
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 40: 542 (1908).

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Polh. & Wiens in Mistletoes Afr.: 303, photo. 137, fig. 40D (1998).
    • Polh. & Wiens in Upland Kenya Wild Flowers, ed. 2: 158 (1994)
    • Wiens & Tölken in Flora of Southern Africa 10(1): 45, fig. 16/3 (1979).
    • Balle in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 1: 380 (1948).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 106 (1948).
    • Sprague in Fl. Cap. 5(2): 130 (1915).
    • Sprague in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 404 (1911)
    • Engl. in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 40: 542 (1908).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0