1. Family: Amaranthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Chenopodium L.
      1. Chenopodium album L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Eurasia to Indian Subcontinent.

    [FZ]

    Chenopodiaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Annual herb usually 10–150 cm. high, normally, much branched, but sometimes stems simple or subsimple especially in small plants; plant green or tinged red especially on stem (which is often red or pink striped), more or less clothed with grey-mealy hairs especially on young parts.
    Leaves
    Leaves very variable even on a single plant, rhombic-ovate to lanceolate, usually distinctly longer than broad by at least 14 times (but the juvenile leaves following the cotyledons may be almost as broad as long), 1.2–8.2 × 0.3–5.5 cm.; leaf-margins entire or more commonly with up to about 10 shallow irregular teeth on each side, the lowermost tooth or lobe on each margin sometimes more prominent than the rest; apex of each margin sometimes more prominent than the rest; apex of leaf acute, or particularly in the lower cauline leaves subacute to rounded; superior leaves and bracts progressively smaller.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a usually ample pancile of very numerous small or medium-sized (2–6 mm. in diam.) densely or laxly spicately or cymosely arranged dense rounded clusters (“glomerules”) of minute grey to green flowers, the latter 1–1.5 mm. in diam.
    Perianth
    Perianth segments 5, papillose with grey mealy hairs on margins and outside, each with a prominent green keel in upper part.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5.
    Seeds
    Pericarp somewhat persistent, but easily rubbed or scraped off seed. Seeds black, shining, 1.2–1.6 (1.85) mm. in diam., bluntly keeled; testa (see under microscope) marked with faint irregular radial furrows, but otherwise almost smooth.
    [FTEA]

    Chenopodiaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1954

    Habit
    Herb usually 10–150 cm. high, annual, normally much branched but sometimes lateral branches short and stem thus appearing subsimple, green or red-tinged, especially on stem, more or less grey-mealy especially on young parts.
    Leaves
    Leaves very variable, rhombic-ovate to lanceolate, mostly distinctly longer than broad by normally at least 1½ times (but the juvenile leaves following the cotyledons may be almost as broad as long), from about 1.2 x 0.3 and 2.3 x 1.3 cm. to 5.4 x 3.1, 6.5 x 3.8, 7 x 1.5, 7 x 3.7 and 8.2 x 5.5 cm., margins entire or more commonly with up to about 10 shallow teeth each side, prominent basal lobes not commonly present, apex of leaf acute, or particularly in the lower cauline leaves subacute to rounded; upper leaves and bracts progressively smaller.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a usually ample panicle of very numerous small or medium (2–6 mm. in diameter) densely or laxly spicately or cymosely arranged dense rounded clusters (“glomerules”) of minute grey to green flowers, latter 1–1.5 mm. in diameter.
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, papillose on margins and outside, each with a prominent green keel in upper part.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5.
    Fruits
    Pericarp somewhat persistent but easily rubbed or scraped off seed.
    Seeds
    Seeds (Fig. 1, p. 2) black, shining, 1.2–1.6 (–1.85) mm. in diameter, bluntly keeled, testa under microscope marked with faint radial furrows further apart than in C. opulifolium, otherwise almost smooth.
    Habitat
    A weed of cultivation, probably recently introduced
    Distribution
    widespread in the temperate and warm parts of the Northern Hemisphereless common and possibly only an introduction further south, but found in S. America and Australiain Africa (other than N.) recorded from the Belgian Congo, Portuguese East Africa and S. Africa K5

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, Hainan, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Magadan, Manchuria, Morocco, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Florida, Free State, Føroyar, Georgia, Gulf of Guinea Is., Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Kermadec Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Lesotho, Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Namibia, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, Seychelles, South Carolina, South Dakota, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tennessee, Texas, Tristan da Cunha, Uruguay, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Chenopodium album L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2011 Day, C.D. [342], Turkey K000341571
    Gerard, P. [Cat. no. 6952] K001126342
    Gerard, P. [Cat. no. 6952] K001126343
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 239], Great Britain K000914048
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 252], Great Britain K000914049
    Murr, J. [s.n.], Switzerland K000898423
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6952] K001126337
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6952] K001126338
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6952] K001126339
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6952], India K001126340
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6952] K001126341
    Sheahan, M-C. [MCS304], United Kingdom K000696410

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 219 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Sukhorukov, A.P. & Kushunina, M. (2014). Taxonomic revision of Chenopodiaceae in Nepal Phytotaxa 191: 10-44.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Malyshev, L.I. (2003). Flora of Siberia 5: 1-305. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1988). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 3: 1-419. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Brenan, J.P.M. (1954). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Chenopodiaceae: 1-26.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Rodríguez, R., Grau, J., Baeza, C. & Davies, A. (2008). Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares de los Nevados de Chillan, Chile Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1988). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 3: 1-419. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Brenan, J.P.M. (1954). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Chenopodiaceae: 1-26.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
    • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hauman in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 2: 9 (1951).
    • Bak. & C. B. Cl. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6 (1): 77 (1909), pro parte, quoad specimen Forbes s.n. tantum (= C. album f. cymigerum (Koch) Schinz & Thell.).
    • L., Sp. Pl. 219 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/