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  1. Family: Acanthaceae Juss.
    1. Ecbolium Kurz

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is NE. Tropical Africa to Kenya and Indian Subcontinent.


    Flora Zambesiaca Acanthaceae (part 2) by Iain Darbyshire, Kaj Vollesen and Ensermu Kelbessa

    Erect perennial or shrubby herbs or shrubs; stems articulated with transverse lines at nodes, usually swollen above nodes and with numerous longitudinal ribs.
    Leaves opposite, with short often inconspicuous cystoliths, margin entire, usually recurved.
    Flowers usually sessile, solitary or 3(7) per bract, in dense strobilate terminal spiciform cymes, axes often flattened; bracts papery, usually caducous, pale to yellowish green (rarely purplish), with straight non-pungent tip, usually with inconspicuous to ± invisible venation; bracteoles 2, subulate to narrowly triangular.
    Calyx deeply divided into 5 equal lanceolate to narrowly triangular acuminate to cuspidate lobes.
    Corolla livid yellowish to bluish green or turquoise green (rarely white to lilac), upper part of tube usually pubescent outside; tube long, cylindric, slightly widening upwards, straight; lower lip with 3 horizontal narrowly elliptic to circular rounded lobes, middle one widest; upper lip with one linear-lanceolate 2-veined bifurcate lobe held erect or curved back.
    Stamens 2, held erect and parallel under upper lip, inserted near base of lower lip, usually 1–3 mm long, glabrous; anthers usually 2–3 mm long, bithecous, medifixed, held parallel with filament, thecae oblong, subequal, curved, rounded at both ends.
    Style filiform, glabrous or hairy near base (rarely over whole length); stigma lobes equal, broadly elliptic, rounded, erect; ovary with 2 ovules per locule.
    Capsule 2–4-seeded, club-shaped, apiculate; retinaculae strong.
    Seed discoid, cordiform in outline, from smooth to densely tuberculate, usually with a broad raised rim with entire to jagged edge.
    A genus of 22 species, 12 in eastern and southern Africa (10 endemic), 7 on Madagascar and the Comoro Is. (all endemic), 3 in southern Arabia (1 endemic), 3 in India (2 endemic), one of which extends to Malaysia (probably introduced).



    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Cape Provinces, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:


    Accepted Species

    Other Data

    Ecbolium Kurz appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Drummond, R.B. [2293], Tanzania 4230.000


    First published in J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 40: 75 (1871)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.


    Flora Zambesiaca

    • —Vollesen in Kew Bull. 44: 638–680 (1989).
    • in J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 2, Nat. Hist. 40: 75 (1871).


    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.