1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Hibiscus L.
      1. Hibiscus cannabinus L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, SW. Arabian Peninsula.

    [FTEA]

    Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Type
    Neotype: “Alcea Bengalensis spinosissima” in Commelin, Hort. Med. Amstelod. Pl. Rar., 1: 35, t. 18, 1697, designated by Wijnands in Bot. Commelins: 144 (1983)
    Habit
    Annual herb up to 3 m tall.
    Stem
    Stems aculeate with small sparse prickles usually pointing upwards, otherwise nearly glabrous or with a longitudinal line of crisped pubescence changing its radial position at each node
    Leaves
    Leaves narrowly ovate, ovate or suborbicular in outline, 3–17 × 3–20 cm, unlobed to 3–7-palmatisect to palmatilobed, apex acute, base broadly cuneate to shallowly cordate, margin serrate or dentate, rarely subentire, scaberulous or almost glabrous with a few minute prickles on the veins, usually with a prominent gland on the undersurface near the base of the midrib; petiole 6–22 cm long, prickly with a line of pubescence, like the stem; stipules narrowly linear to filiform, 4–5 mm long, caducous
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in the leaf axils, pedicel 2-6 mm long, articulated at base, aculeate or hispid; epicalyx of 7–8 linear bracts 5–10 × 1–1.5 mm, joined to calyx for about 2 mm at base; calyx lobes 10–20 × 3–5 mm, long-acuminate (sometimes subcaudate) joined for up to a third of their length from the base, aculeate or hispid outside especially near the margin, margin sometimes with a woolly tomentum, usually with a prominent gland 1.5–2 mm in diameter on midrib
    Corolla
    Corolla deep purple, pale yellow or white, 3–8 cm long, whitish or greyish pubescent outside, glabrous within.
    Stamens
    Staminal tube 2–4 cm long; filaments 13 mm long; exserted part of style 3–6 mm long, glabrous
    Fruits
    Capsule ovoid-acuminate, 13–18 mm long, 9–12 mm in diameter, appressed setose.
    Seeds
    Seeds irregularly subreniform, 3–3.5 × 1.5–2.5 mm, sparsely to densely covered with truncate scales.
    Ecology
    Grassland, bushland, wooded grassland and forest margins; 0–2000 m
    Note
    Following a suggestion by Borssum Waalkes (in Blumea 14: 63. 1966), Wijnands treated a Commelin plate as the lectotype. However, this is not cited in the protologue (though it was added in the later account in Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 2: 979. 1763). It is therefore not original material for the name but, in the absence of any original material at all (sheet 875.27 (LINN) is original material for Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), Wijnands’ statement is treated as correctable to a neotypification (Art. 9.8). Several strains of Hibiscus cannabinus were introduced in the Amani plantations by the Germans in the early part of the twentieth century. Some of these were later introduced in other parts of the Flora area and have become naturalized. These are generally not aculeate or very sparsely so, and may have unlobed or palmatilobed leaves. Wild Hibiscus cannabinus appears to get less aculeate the further South from Kenya one travels. Tanner 4303 (K) is probably an undescribed species, but the material available is too poor for a formal diagnosis.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Z Range: Most of Africa and extending to India
    [FWTA]

    Malvaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    An erect annual, to 15 ft. high
    Flowers
    Flowers large, yellow with a red-purple centre
    Note
    Cultivated as a fibre plant, and naturalized.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 420 - 1088 m.; Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba, subarbusto
    [FZ]

    Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Annual herb up to c. 2 m. tall; stems aculeate with small rather sparse prickles usually pointing upwards, otherwise nearly glabrous or with a longitudinal line of crisped pubescence changing its radial position at each node.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina up to c. 15 × 15 cm., usually suborbicular in outline, scaberulous or almost glabrous with a few minute prickles on the nerves, 3–7-palmatisect to palmate-lobed, often somewhat pedate (usually nearly entire in seedlings and sometimes near the apex of the stems), apex acute, margin serrate or dentate, rarely subentire, base broadly cuneate to shallowly cordate, usually with a prominent gland on the under surface near the base of the midrib, lobes elliptic to entire; petiole up to 22 cm. long, hairy like the stems; stipules 4·5 mm. long, narrowly linear to filiform, very caducous (rarely seen on dried specimens).
    Flowers
    Flowers up to 10 cm. in diam., usually pale yellow, whitish or greyish, with purple centre, solitary, axillary or in racemes by the reduction of the upper leaves; peduncle 2–6 mm. long, aculeate or setose.
    Epicalyx
    Epicalyx of 7–8 bracts, bracts up to 18 mm. long, linear, joined for about 2 mm. at the base.
    Calyx
    Calyx up to 20·5 cm. long, 10-nerved, setose; lobes long, acuminate (sometimes subcaudate), joined for up to 5 mm. at the base, aculeate or setose outside especially near the margin, margin sometimes with a woolly tomentum, usually with a prominent gland 1·5–2 mm. in diam. on the midrib.
    Corolla
    Petals up to 6 × 4·5 cm., obovate, pubescent outside, glabrous within.
    Stamens
    Staminal tube up to 23 mm. long; free parts of filaments 1–2 mm. long.
    Style
    Style-branches 2–3·5 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule up to 20 × 15 mm., ovoid-acuminate, appressed-setose.
    Seeds
    Seeds 3–3·5 × 1·5–2·5 mm., irregularly subreniform, minutely faveolate.
    [FWTA]

    Malvaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    Erect fibrous herb to 8 ft. high, often red-tinged in parts
    Spines
    Armed with small spine-tipped tubercles
    Flowers
    Flowers yellow with purple centre
    Ecology
    Probably native in savannah areas.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Bangladesh, Brazil Southeast, Cape Verde, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kriti, Laos, Leeward Is., Manchuria, Niue, Peru, Primorye, Puerto Rico, South European Russi, Sri Lanka, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Windward Is.

    Common Names

    English
    Bastard jute, Kenaf, Wild stockrose

    Hibiscus cannabinus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Tanner, R. [496], Tanzania 15362.000
    Meurillon, A. [1418], Cameroon K000105060
    Bidgood, S. [5444], Tanzania K000190674
    Dollinger [s.n.] K000240764
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1898], Myanmar K001114629
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1898], Myanmar K001114630
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1898] K001114631
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1898] K001114632
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1898] K001114633
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1898] K001114634
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1898] K001114635
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1898] K001114636
    Mar 1, 1997 Zapfack, L. [1163], Cameroon Hibiscus asper K000337679
    Caille [14909] Hibiscus asper K000240761
    Brunt, M.A. [883], Cameroon Hibiscus asper K000105061

    First published in Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1149 (1759)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lopes Esteves, G., Duarte, M.C. & Takeuchi, C. (2014). Sinopse de Hibiscus L. (Malvoideae, Malvaceae) do estado de São Paulo, Brasil: espécies nativas e cultivadas ornamentais Hoehnea 41: 529-539.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Bot. 64–65 (excl. var. chevalieri).
    • Hochr. in Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genèv. 5: 114, partly
    • —F.T.A. 1: 204, partly
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Lopes Esteves, G., Duarte, M.C. & Takeuchi, C. (2014). Sinopse de Hibiscus L. (Malvoideae, Malvaceae) do estado de São Paulo, Brasil: espécies nativas e cultivadas ornamentais Hoehnea 41: 529-539.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1997). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 11: 1-420. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Lond. (Bot.) 29(1): 66 (1999)
    • Fl. Somalia 2: 44, fig. 25a–f (1999)
    • Fl. Eth. & Eritr. 2(2): 198 (1995)
    • U.K.W.F.: 99 (1994)
    • Edmonds, Distr. Hibiscus Sect. Furcaria Trop. E. Afr.: 15 (1991)
    • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 76 (1987)
    • F.C.B. 10: 108 (1963)
    • F.Z. 1 (2): 441 (1961)
    • F.P.S. 2: 28 fig. 11 (1952)
    • Engl., Pflanzenw. Afr. 3, 2: 400, fig 188 (1921)
    • J.L.S. 40: 27 (1911)
    • Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Geneve, 4. 114 (1900)
    • F.T.A. 1: 204 (1868)
    • Fl. Cap. 1: 176 (1860)
    • Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1149 (1759)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/