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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, SW. Arabian Peninsula.
Hibiscus cannabinus L.

[FTEA]

Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Type
Neotype: “Alcea Bengalensis spinosissima” in Commelin, Hort. Med. Amstelod. Pl. Rar., 1: 35, t. 18, 1697, designated by Wijnands in Bot. Commelins: 144 (1983)
Morphology General Habit
Annual herb up to 3 m tall.
Morphology Stem
Stems aculeate with small sparse prickles usually pointing upwards, otherwise nearly glabrous or with a longitudinal line of crisped pubescence changing its radial position at each node
Morphology Leaves
Leaves narrowly ovate, ovate or suborbicular in outline, 3–17 × 3–20 cm, unlobed to 3–7-palmatisect to palmatilobed, apex acute, base broadly cuneate to shallowly cordate, margin serrate or dentate, rarely subentire, scaberulous or almost glabrous with a few minute prickles on the veins, usually with a prominent gland on the undersurface near the base of the midrib; petiole 6–22 cm long, prickly with a line of pubescence, like the stem; stipules narrowly linear to filiform, 4–5 mm long, caducous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary in the leaf axils, pedicel 2-6 mm long, articulated at base, aculeate or hispid; epicalyx of 7–8 linear bracts 5–10 × 1–1.5 mm, joined to calyx for about 2 mm at base; calyx lobes 10–20 × 3–5 mm, long-acuminate (sometimes subcaudate) joined for up to a third of their length from the base, aculeate or hispid outside especially near the margin, margin sometimes with a woolly tomentum, usually with a prominent gland 1.5–2 mm in diameter on midrib
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla deep purple, pale yellow or white, 3–8 cm long, whitish or greyish pubescent outside, glabrous within.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube 2–4 cm long; filaments 13 mm long; exserted part of style 3–6 mm long, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ovoid-acuminate, 13–18 mm long, 9–12 mm in diameter, appressed setose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds irregularly subreniform, 3–3.5 × 1.5–2.5 mm, sparsely to densely covered with truncate scales.
Ecology
Grassland, bushland, wooded grassland and forest margins; 0–2000 m
Note
Following a suggestion by Borssum Waalkes (in Blumea 14: 63. 1966), Wijnands treated a Commelin plate as the lectotype. However, this is not cited in the protologue (though it was added in the later account in Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 2: 979. 1763). It is therefore not original material for the name but, in the absence of any original material at all (sheet 875.27 (LINN) is original material for Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), Wijnands’ statement is treated as correctable to a neotypification (Art. 9.8). Several strains of Hibiscus cannabinus were introduced in the Amani plantations by the Germans in the early part of the twentieth century. Some of these were later introduced in other parts of the Flora area and have become naturalized. These are generally not aculeate or very sparsely so, and may have unlobed or palmatilobed leaves. Wild Hibiscus cannabinus appears to get less aculeate the further South from Kenya one travels. Tanner 4303 (K) is probably an undescribed species, but the material available is too poor for a formal diagnosis.
Distribution
Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Z Range: Most of Africa and extending to India

[FWTA]

Malvaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
An erect annual, to 15 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers large, yellow with a red-purple centre
Note
Cultivated as a fibre plant, and naturalized.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
rosella, yute de Java

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Epicalyx
Epicalyx bracts 7–8, 5–18 x 1–2 mm, linear or lanceolate, entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 13–25 mm long; lobes narrowly triangular, acuminate, setose, with prominent central nerve and 2 submarginal nerves, the central with a conspicuous gland
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 3–6 cm long, whitish or pale yellow, with purple base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube c. 15 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 10–25 mm long, ovoid-acuminate, setose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 4 mm long, glabrous or with scattered hairs.
Distribution
N1; S1–3 widespread in tropical and subtropical regions.
Ecology
Altitude range 20–1800 m.
Vernacular
Balambal, edi libah (Somali)
Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, up to c. 2 m tall; stems sparsely to densely prickly with prickles usually pointing upwards, otherwise glabrous or with a longitudinal line of crisped hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves glabrous to puberulous or with a few minute prickles on the nerves; petiole 3–22 cm long; blade broadly ovate to suborbicular in outline, c. 4–20 x 3–20 cm, deeply 3–7-lobed or some entire, broadly cuneate to subcordate at the base, lobes lanceolate to ovate, acute to acuminate, with serrate to dentate or subentire margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in leaf axils or in racemes; pedicels 2–10 mm long, articulated at the base, setose

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 420 - 1088 m.; Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto

[FZ]

Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb up to c. 2 m. tall; stems aculeate with small rather sparse prickles usually pointing upwards, otherwise nearly glabrous or with a longitudinal line of crisped pubescence changing its radial position at each node.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina up to c. 15 × 15 cm., usually suborbicular in outline, scaberulous or almost glabrous with a few minute prickles on the nerves, 3–7-palmatisect to palmate-lobed, often somewhat pedate (usually nearly entire in seedlings and sometimes near the apex of the stems), apex acute, margin serrate or dentate, rarely subentire, base broadly cuneate to shallowly cordate, usually with a prominent gland on the under surface near the base of the midrib, lobes elliptic to entire; petiole up to 22 cm. long, hairy like the stems; stipules 4·5 mm. long, narrowly linear to filiform, very caducous (rarely seen on dried specimens).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers up to 10 cm. in diam., usually pale yellow, whitish or greyish, with purple centre, solitary, axillary or in racemes by the reduction of the upper leaves; peduncle 2–6 mm. long, aculeate or setose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Epicalyx
Epicalyx of 7–8 bracts, bracts up to 18 mm. long, linear, joined for about 2 mm. at the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx up to 20·5 cm. long, 10-nerved, setose; lobes long, acuminate (sometimes subcaudate), joined for up to 5 mm. at the base, aculeate or setose outside especially near the margin, margin sometimes with a woolly tomentum, usually with a prominent gland 1·5–2 mm. in diam. on the midrib.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals up to 6 × 4·5 cm., obovate, pubescent outside, glabrous within.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube up to 23 mm. long; free parts of filaments 1–2 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style-branches 2–3·5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule up to 20 × 15 mm., ovoid-acuminate, appressed-setose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 3–3·5 × 1·5–2·5 mm., irregularly subreniform, minutely faveolate.

[FWTA]

Malvaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
Erect fibrous herb to 8 ft. high, often red-tinged in parts
Morphology General Spines
Armed with small spine-tipped tubercles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers yellow with purple centre
Ecology
Probably native in savannah areas.

[FSOM]
Use
The young leaves and flowers may be cooked and eaten as vegetables. H. cannabinus is grown as a fiber-plant and jute substitute in India as well as in Africa.

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Assam, Bangladesh, Brazil Southeast, Cape Verde, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kriti, Laos, Leeward Is., Manchuria, Nepal, Niue, Pakistan, Peru, Primorye, Puerto Rico, South European Russi, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Windward Is.

English
Bastard jute, Kenaf, Wild stockrose

Hibiscus cannabinus L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Tanner, R. [496], Tanzania 15362.000
Dollinger [s.n.] K000240764
Bidgood, S. [5444], Tanzania K000190674
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1898] K001114635
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1898] K001114632
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1898], Myanmar K001114629
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1898], Myanmar K001114630
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1898] K001114631
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1898] K001114633
Meurillon, A. [1418], Cameroon K000105060
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1898] K001114634
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1898] K001114636
Mar 1, 1997 Zapfack, L. [1163], Cameroon Hibiscus asper K000337679
Caille [14909] Hibiscus asper K000240761
Brunt, M.A. [883], Cameroon Hibiscus asper K000105061

First published in Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1149 (1759)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Chayamarit, K. & Balslev, H. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Thailand 14(2): 185-358. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1979). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 2: 1-220. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lopes Esteves, G., Duarte, M.C. & Takeuchi, C. (2014). Sinopse de Hibiscus L. (Malvoideae, Malvaceae) do estado de São Paulo, Brasil: espécies nativas e cultivadas ornamentais Hoehnea 41: 529-539.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Riedl, I. (1976). Flora Iranica 120: 1-86. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Bot. 64–65 (excl. var. chevalieri).
  • Hochr. in Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genèv. 5: 114, partly
  • —F.T.A. 1: 204, partly

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Chayamarit, K. & Balslev, H. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Thailand 14(2): 185-358. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1997). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 11: 1-420. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1979). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 2: 1-220. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lopes Esteves, G., Duarte, M.C. & Takeuchi, C. (2014). Sinopse de Hibiscus L. (Malvoideae, Malvaceae) do estado de São Paulo, Brasil: espécies nativas e cultivadas ornamentais Hoehnea 41: 529-539.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Riedl, I. (1976). Flora Iranica 120: 1-86. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Geneve, 4. 114 (1900)
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 76 (1987)
  • Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Lond. (Bot.) 29(1): 66 (1999)
  • Edmonds, Distr. Hibiscus Sect. Furcaria Trop. E. Afr.: 15 (1991)
  • Engl., Pflanzenw. Afr. 3, 2: 400, fig 188 (1921)
  • F.C.B. 10: 108 (1963)
  • F.P.S. 2: 28 fig. 11 (1952)
  • F.T.A. 1: 204 (1868)
  • F.Z. 1 (2): 441 (1961)
  • Fl. Cap. 1: 176 (1860)
  • Fl. Eth. & Eritr. 2(2): 198 (1995)
  • Fl. Somalia 2: 44, fig. 25a–f (1999)
  • J.L.S. 40: 27 (1911)
  • Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1149 (1759)
  • U.K.W.F.: 99 (1994)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0