1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Hibiscus L.
      1. Hibiscus lunariifolius Willd.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. India, Sri Lanka.

    [FTEA]

    Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Type
    Type: India, Tranquebar, Klein s.n. (B-W, holo.)
    Habit
    Herb 0.5–1.5 m tall.
    Stem
    Stems sparsely to densely stellate-hispid
    Leaves
    Leaves ovate to broadly ovate, 3–8 × 4–10 cm, unlobed or shallowly 3-lobed, apex acute, base rounded or shallowly cordate, margin serrate or crenate, sparsely stellate-hispid above and below; petiole 3–12 cm long, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, with a line of pubescence adaxially; stipules linear, 4–6 × 0.2–0.3 mm, sparsely hispid
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in leaf axils; pedicel 23–60 mm long, articulated at base, sparsely or densely pubescent; epicalyx of 5–6 linear bracts 10–15 × 1–1.5 mm, sparsely pubescent; calyx lobes 8–17 × 5–10 mm, acuminate, fused for ± half their length, with three prominent rib-like veins, sparsely pubescent, stellate-hispid or not
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow with a maroon spot at base, 3.5–6 cm long, stellate-pubescent outside, glabrous inside.
    Stamens
    Staminal tube 1.5–2 cm long; filaments 2–3 mm long; exserted part of style 2–3 mm long, villous
    Fruits
    Capsule ellipsoid, 1.5–2 cm long, 1 cm in diameter, densely stellate-setose, valves awned.
    Seeds
    Seeds black, reniform, 2 × 1 mm, with scattered pectinate scales on a background of concentric rings.
    Ecology
    Seasonally flooded woodland and disturbed habitats; 600–1500 m
    Note
    This species is probably introduced from India. The material studied matches the Indian material well. Furthermore, this plant is only known from disturbed/ruderal habitats in our area. I do not find Hibiscus sp. C. of U.K.W.F. ed. 2 to be distinct from this species.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U3 U4 K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T6 Range: Zimbabwe, India
    [FWTA]

    Malvaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A tall undershrub
    Indumentum
    Stellate-hirsute becoming glabrous
    Flowers
    Flowers large, yellow with purple centre.
    [FZ]

    Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Erect herb about 1 m. tall; stems densely patent- or subappressed-stellate-setose and pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina up to 10 × 9 cm., ovate to suborbicular, shallowly or obscurely 3-lobed or not lobed, pubescent (at least on the nerves) above and often sparsely stellate-setose, sparsely to densely pubescent to stellate-setose below, sometimes tomentose when young, indumentum often ± floccose (perhaps due to some pathological condition), apex acute or somewhat rounded, margin crenate-serrate, base shallowly cordate (more rarely obtuse); petiole up to 8 cm. long, pubescent; stipules c. 5 mm. long, lorate to filiform.
    Flowers
    Flowers 3–5 cm. in diam., yellow (usually without a dark centre, at least in our area), solitary, axillary and often forming rather congested terminal racemes by reduction of the upper leaves; peduncle usually up to 5 mm. long, stellate-setose.
    Epicalyx
    Epicalyx of 5 bracts; bracts 16 × 3 mm., very narrowly lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, acute, joined for 1–1·5 mm. at the base.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5–6 mm. long, cupuliform, usually slightly shorter than the epicalyx; lobes very narrowly triangular with 1 prominent central nerve and broad sinuses.
    Corolla
    Petals 5–6 × 4–5 cm., obliquely obovate, tomentose outside when in bud.
    Stamens
    Staminal tube 15–20 mm. long; free parts of filaments 1–1·2 mm. long.
    Style
    Style-branches 2–3 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule 15 × 12–14 mm., subglobose to broadly ellipsoid; awns 2·5–3 mm. long.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2·5 × 2·5 mm., angular subreniform, sparsely and minutely lepidote.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    India, Sri Lanka

    Introduced into:

    Botswana, Ethiopia, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zimbabwe

    Hibiscus lunariifolius Willd. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 1959 Willdenow, C.L. [12866], Tamil Nadu K000659803 isotype
    Roxburgh, R. [s.n.], India K000659782
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1892] Hibiscus pruriens K001114603
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1892] Hibiscus pruriens K001114604
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1892] Hibiscus pruriens K001114605
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1892] Hibiscus pruriens K001114606
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1892] Hibiscus pruriens K001114607
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1892] Hibiscus pruriens K001129362

    First published in Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 3: 811 (1800)

    Accepted by

    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1997). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 11: 1-420. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 1: 202, partly.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1997). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 11: 1-420. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Eth. & Eritr. 2 (2): 194 (1995).
    • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 99 (1994)
    • F.Z. 1(2): 459 (1961)
    • F.T.A. 1:202 (1868)
    • L., Sp. Pl. ed. 4, 3: 811 (1800)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0