1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Hibiscus L.
      1. Hibiscus surattensis L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FWTA]

    Malvaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    Herbaceous, trailing or climbing
    Indumentum
    Stems with spreading hairs and recurved prickles
    Flowers
    Flowers yellow with red centre.
    [FZ]

    Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Annual herb, prostrate or climbing or scrambling up to 3 m.; stems hispid and/or pubescent and sparsely to rather densely aculeate.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina up to 10 × 10 cm., broadly ovate to suborbicular in outline, sparsely hispid on both surfaces and aculeate on the nerves beneath, palmately 3–5-lobed (sometimes only shallowly) to palmatipartite; segments elliptic, somewhat constricted towards the base, rather coarsely toothed; petiole up to 11 cm. long, hairy like the stems; stipules up to 15 × 10 mm., broad, auriculate, ± amplexicaul.
    Flowers
    Flowers up to 10 cm. in diam., yellow with purple centre, solitary, axillary; peduncle up to 6–7 cm. long, hispid and aculeate, articulated 3–7 mm. below the apex and often more densely hispid above the articulation.
    Epicalyx
    Epicalyx of 8–9 bracts; bracts 10–15 mm. long, forked with the inner branch linear and inflexed and the outer branch spathulate.
    Calyx
    Calyx 10-veined, becoming scarious; lobes up to 25 × 10 mm., ovate-lanceolate, usually somewhat rigid with long sharp apices, setose and aculeate on the median and marginal nerves.
    Corolla
    Petals up to 5 × 3·5 cm., obovate, glabrous or nearly so.
    Stamens
    Staminal tube up to 15 mm. long; free parts of filaments 1·5–2·5 mm. long.
    Style
    Style branching 5 mm. above the apex of the staminal tube; branches 2–2·5 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule 15 × 12 mm., globose-ovoid, densely appressed-pilose, apex acute.
    Seeds
    Seeds 3–3·5 × 2·5 mm., subreniform, with a few minute white appressed-stellate hairs.
    [FTEA]

    Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Type
    Type: not designated (see note below).
    Habit
    Annual herb, prostrate or climbing or scrambling up to 3 m.
    Stem
    Stems hispid and/or pubescent and sparsely to rather densely aculeate
    Leaves
    Leaves broadly ovate to suborbicular in outline, 4–11 cm long, 3–10 cm, palmately 3–5-lobed (sometimes not lobed or only shallowly so) to palmatipartite, apex acute or acuminate, base truncate or shallowly cordate, margin coarsely toothed, sparsely hispid on both surfaces and aculeate on the veins beneath; petiole 3–15 cm long, sparsely pilose, aculeate, the prickles on a swollen base, recurved, with an adaxial line of pubescence; stipules auriculate, ± amplexicaul, 15–20 × 7–10 mm, sparsely pilose
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in the leaf axils; pedicel up to 6–7 cm long, hispid above the articulation; epicalyx of 8–9 bracts 10–15 mm long, forked with the inner branch linear and inflexed and the outer branch spatulate; calyx lobes ovate-lanceolate, 12–25 × 5–10 mm, usually somewhat rigid with long sharp apices, hispid and aculeate on the median and marginal veins
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow with purple patch at base, 3–5 cm long, glabrous.
    Stamens
    Staminal tube 12–15 mm long, filaments 1.5–2.5 mm long; exserted part of styles 7–9 mm long, glabrous
    Fruits
    Capsule globose-ovoid, 12 15 mm long, 10–12 mm diameter, apex acute, densely appressed-pilose.
    Seeds
    Seeds grey-brown, subreniform, 3–3.5 mm × 2.5 mm, with scattered appressed ovate scales.
    Ecology
    Grassland, bushland and forest; 0–1700 m
    Note
    Borssum Waalkes in Blumea 14: 58 (1966), and others have treated 875.29 (LINN) (K!, microfiche) as the type, but the sheet lacks the relevant Species Plantarum number (i.e. “12”), and was a post-1753 addition to the collection, and is not original material for the name.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U2 U3 U 4 ; K3 K4 K7 T1 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 ZP Range: Widespread in tropical Africa, India, southeast Asia

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Laos, Liberia, Malawi, Malaya, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Mauritius, Réunion, Seychelles

    Hibiscus surattensis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 2009 Alex karolus [60], Malaysia K000610390
    Mar 1, 2009 Argent, J. et al. [108202], Malaysia K000610391
    Nov 1, 2003 Lane, P. [326], Cameroon K000198167
    Nov 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [1625], Cameroon K000198168
    Hutchinson, J. [103], Cameroon K000105059
    Cheek, M. [11018], Cameroon K000338371
    s.coll. [s.n.], Indian Subcontinent K000659809
    s.coll. [s.n.], Indian Subcontinent K000659810
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1893], Myanmar K001114608
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1893], Myanmar K001114609
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1893], Singapore K001114616
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 1893] K001114610
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1893] K001114611
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1893], India K001114612
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1893] K001114613
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1893] K001114614
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1893] K001114615

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 696 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
    • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Bot. 68.
    • —F.T.A. 1: 201
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
    • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Wilson, Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Lond. (Bot.) 29(1): 51 (1999).
    • Fl. Eth. & Eritr. 2(2): 198 (1995)
    • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 99 (1994)
    • Edmonds, Distr. Hibiscus Sect. Furcaria Trop. E. Afr.: 15 (1991)
    • F.C.B. 10: 121 (1963)
    • F.Z. 1: 438, t. 89/4 (1961)
    • Keay, F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 1(2): 346 (1950)
    • U.O.P.Z.: 298 (1949)
    • Engl. Pflanzenw. Afr. 3, 2: 400, fig. 187 A (1921)
    • J.L.S. 40: 27 (1911)
    • Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Geneve, 4:110 (1900)
    • F.T.A. 1: 201 (1868)
    • Peters, Reise Moss. Bot. 1: 127 (1861)
    • Fl. Cap. 1: 177 (1860)
    • Sp. Pl. 2: 696 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0