1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Hibiscus L.
      1. Hibiscus vitifolius L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FZ]

    Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Shrub or perennial herb up to 1·5 m. tall, sometimes scandent or scrambling; stems terete, nearly glabrous or with a very variable indumentum, sometimes tomentose or tomentellous, often glandular, sometimes hispid or stellate-hispid or aculeate and with these different types of hairs occurring in various combinations.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina 3–15 × 3–15 cm., ovate to suborbicular; not lobed to deeply 3–5 (7)-palmatilobed, with a variable indumentum (as on the stems) but stellatehispid or bifurcate hairs, rather rare on the stems, are more frequent especially on the under surface, margin serrate, base truncate to cordate 5–9-nerved; lobes acute or bluntish; petiole 2–7 (18) cm. long, hairy like the stems; stipules 3–5 mm. long, filiform.
    Flowers
    Flowers 5–9 cm. in diam., yellow with a dark reddish or purple centre, solitary or forming terminal racemes by reduction of the upper leaves; peduncle 1–1·5 (5) cm. long, articulated above the middle.
    Epicalyx
    Epicalyx of c. 10 bracts; bracts 8–10 mm. long, filiform.
    Calyx
    Calyx up to 15 mm. long in flower, accrescent, somewhat scarious; lobes up to 15 × 10 mm., broadly elliptic, acuminate, joined to about half-way.
    Corolla
    Petals up to c. 5 × 4·5 cm., glabrous or nearly so.
    Stamens
    Staminal tube up to 15 mm. long; free parts of filaments up to 5 mm. long.
    Style
    Style-branches 1·5–3 mm. long, minutely glandular.
    Fruits
    Capsule 10–12 × 12–15 mm. winged, scarious, usually hispid; valves ± aristate.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2·5 × 1·5 mm., irregularly reniform, glabrous.
    [FTEA]

    Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Type
    Lectotype “Habitat in India.”, Herb. Hermann 4: 39, No. 265, designated by Brenan & Exell in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 32 : 70 (1958)
    Habit
    Herb to 2 m tall, stems pilose, with or without tubercules, sometimes red-tinged
    Leaves
    Leaves ovate, 3–9 × 2.5–10 cm, unlobed or shallowly to deeply 3–5(–7)-lobed, apex acute or acuminate, base cordate or truncate, margin crenate, serrate or undulate, glabrous to pubescent above and below, stellate-hispid or not; petiole 1–12.5 cm long, glabrescent to pilose, tuberculate or not; stipules linear or filiform, 3–8 × 0.3 mm, sparsely pilose
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in leaf axils and in terminal cymes; pedicel 0.6–3.3 cm, articulated at the middle, pubescent-pilose, rarely tuberculate; epicalyx of 8–12 filiform bracts, 7–12 × 0.1–0.5 mm, pilose; calyx lobes ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 10–18 × 4–10 mm, fused in the lower half, pubescent-hispid
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow or lilac with a dark red or maroon blotch at base of each petal, 2.5–6 cm long, glabrous.
    Stamens
    Staminal tube 10–16 mm; filaments 2–3 mm long; exserted part of style 2–5 mm long, glabrous
    Fruits
    Capsule straw-coloured, ovoid-rotund, 10–17 mm long, 9–15 mm diameter, wings 2–3 mm wide, sparsely pubescent, setose along the sutures.
    Seeds
    Seeds black or dark brown, wedge-shaped, 3 × 2 mm, with evenly-spaced longitudinal rows of tubercules all over
    Figures
    Fig 8: 1–5, p 57

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Bangladesh, Botswana, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Chad, Christmas I., Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

    Hibiscus vitifolius L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 25, 1984 Schimper [1029], Ethiopia K000240726
    Bent, J. Th. [s.n.] K000240725
    Ritchie, A. H. [2], Angola K000240690
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1899], Myanmar K001114640
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1899] K001114637
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1899] K001114638 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1899] K001114639
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1899] K001114641
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1899] K001114642
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1899] K001114643

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 696 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
    • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
    • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Somalia 2: 50, fig. 28a–e (1999)
    • Fl. Eth. & Eritr. 2(2): 205 (1995)
    • F.C.B. 10: 103 (1963)
    • F.Z 1(2): 470 (1961)
    • Keay, F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 1(2): 346 (1958)
    • F.P.S. 2: 28 fig. 8 (1952)
    • F.T.A. 1: 197 (1868)
    • Sp. Pl. 2: 694 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/