1. Family: Acanthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Thunbergia Retz.
      1. Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar.

    [FWTA]

    Acanthaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A softly pubescent herbaceous twiner
    Flowers
    Pale to dark yellow flowers (sometimes white) usually red or dark purple in the throat.
    [FTEA]

    Acanthaceae (part 1), Kaj Vollesen, Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2008

    Habit
    Annual or perennial trailing or twining herb, when perennial with single or several stems from woody rootstock; stems to 5 m long, yellowish to whitish sparsely sericeous or sericeous-pubescent to pilose or tomentose.
    Leaves
    Leaves with petiole 0.8–7(–9.5) cm long, with a flat (rarely undulate) wing which on some or all leaves widens distinctly upwards or is parallel-sided, sometimes very narrow or absent on some (more rarely all) leaves, indumentum as stems; lamina triangular or triangular-ovate, largest 2–10(–12) × 1.2–7(–8.5) cm, apex acute or subacute, apiculate, base subcordate to deeply cordate (rarely truncate) with hastate or rounded basal lobes, margin entire to coarsely dentate; sericeous-pubescent or sparsely so tomentose, below densest along veins, above uniformly.
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary, solitary (rarely paired or in 3’s); pedicels 2–9.5(–11) cm long, indumentum as stems; bracteoles green, sometimes with purple venation or mottled with purple, ovate to oblong, (1–)1.4–3.5 × 0.5–1.6(–2.1) cm, acute to rounded, truncate to cordate and distinctly 4-angular at base, whitish to yellowish pubescent or sericeous-pubescent or sparsely so, densest on veins.
    Calyx
    Calyx puberulous and with scattered to dense stalked capitate glands, rim 0.5–2 mm high, segments linear, 1–5 mm long.
    Corolla
    Corolla pale yellow to brillant orange or brick red (rarely white) with deep purple to almost black throat; cylindric tube 3–6 mm long; throat straight or slightly curved, campanulate or narrowly so, (1.2–)1.5–2.8(–3.2) cm long and 0.7–1.8 cm in diameter apically; lobes 0.8–2 × 1–2.5 cm, broadly emarginate.
    Filaments
    Filaments 2–7 and 4–9 mm long; anthers 3–5 mm long, indistinctly apiculate, densely bearded at base and along 2/3 of one side; spurs 1–1.5 mm long.
    Fruits
    Capsule densely puberulous, depressed globose, 6–9 × 7–12 mm, beak 8–17(–19) mm long, constricted at base.
    Seeds
    Seed 4–6 mm in diameter, dark brown, echinate-lamellate or reticulate.
    Figures
    Fig. 8.
    Ecology
    A wide range of habitats from wet forest (usually on margins) to dry Acacia-Commiphora bushland, often in disturbed places and secondary vegetation; near sea level to 2700 m
    Note
    In northern Tanzania and central, eastern and northern Kenya dry country plants (e.g. Richards 27208) become very hairy with narrow or absent petiole wings and shallowly cordate leaves. The typical form from Zanzibar, much of Tanzania, western Kenya and Uganda is quite uniform. Certain forms can be distinct locally, but there are always intermediate specimens to other forms, and a lot of the variation seems correlated to the wide range of habitats occupied by this species. This widespread species contains a number of forms which I have found impossible to separate into any meaningful taxa. An upland forest form (e.g. Greenway 12157) from northern Tanzania and central Kenya has large leaves, unwinged petioles and large flowers, but large flowered specimens also occur in typical material.
    Distribution
    Range: Throughout tropical Africa, but especially common in the east, also in Madagascar, India and SE Asia and introduced in tropical America Range: Z P Flora districts: U1 U 2, U 3, U 4; K1 K 2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Range: Throughout tropical Africa, but especially common in the east, also in Madagascar, India and SE Asia and introduced in tropical America Range: Kenya. Range: Uganda. Range: Tanzania.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, New Caledonia, Ogasawara-shoto, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Suriname, Taiwan, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Oct 29, 2015 Shiu Ying Hu [7198], China K000938754
    Jan 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1647], Cameroon K000109348
    Jan 1, 1999 Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K000393605 syntype
    Jan 1, 1999 Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K000393606 syntype
    Jan 1, 1999 Meller, C.J. [s.n.], Malawi K000393607 isotype
    Jan 1, 1999 Kirk [s.n.], Malawi K000393608
    Jan 1, 1999 Kirk [s.n.], Malawi K000393609
    Jan 1, 1999 Kirk [s.n.], Malawi K000393610 isotype
    Dec 20, 1935 Hinton, G.B. [4822], Mexico K000064107
    17172.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10368], Tanzania 24157.000
    Troupin, G. [3303], Rwanda 2939.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10964], Tanzania 2940.000
    Ash [691], Ethiopia 51050.000
    Kirk [s.n.], Malawi K000393604 syntype
    Bojer [s.n.], Tanzania K000393627 holotype
    Bojer [s.n.], Tanzania K000393628 isotype
    Hinton, G.B. [5154], Mexico K000064110
    Sparrow, M. [VERA 102], Mexico K000064103
    Calzada, J.I. [883], Mexico K000064104
    Calzada, J.I. [898], Mexico K000064105
    Bourgeau, M. [1350], Mexico K000064106
    Rovirosa, J.N. [265], Mexico K000064108
    Kerber, E. [76], Mexico K000064109
    Bidgood, S. [5459], Tanzania K000190689
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 7141] K001126775
    Lucas, E.J. [721], Brazil K001032347
    Lucas, E.J. [685], Brazil K001032348
    Pirani, J.R. [2811], Brazil K001032349
    Félix, L.P. [s.n.], Brazil K001032350
    Arbo, M.M. [5546], Brazil K001032351
    Vieira, M.C.W. [454], Brazil K001032352
    Eiten, G. [7086], Brazil K001032353
    Eiten, G. [6061], Brazil K001032354
    Mori, S.A. [10092], Brazil K001032355
    Heringer, E.P. [3427-A], Brazil K001032356
    Irwin, H.S. [15871], Brazil K001032357
    Irwin, H.S. [20629], Brazil K001032358
    Usteri [146], Brazil K001032359
    Usteri, A. [238b], Brazil K001032360
    Silva, N.T. [58341], Brazil K001032361
    Wellman, F.C. [1815], Angola K001009198

    First published in Bot. Mag. 52: t. 2591 (1825)

    Accepted by

    • Marchioretto, M.S., Pires da Silva, V.R.S. & Parode, M.F. (2015). A família Acanthaceae Juss. no Rio Grande do Sul Pesquisas: Botanica 68: 7-82.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ningombam, D.S. (2014). The family Acanthaceae for the flora of Manipur: 1-115. LAP Lambert academic publishing.
    • Vollesen, K. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(5): 1-184. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Araújo, D. & Alves, M. (2010). Climbing plants of a fragmented area of lowland Atlantic forest, Igarassu, Pernambuco (northeastern Brazil) Phytotaxa 8: 1-24.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Monteiro de Barros, A.A., de Andrade Ribas, L. & Dunn Araujo, D.S. (2009). Trepadeiras do Parque Estadual da Serra do Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Rodriguésia 60: 681-694.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Vollesen, K. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Acanthaceae(1): 1-285.
    • Vikraman, R/R/, Pandurangan, A.G. & Thulasidas, G. (2008). A study on the garden escaped exotics of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala Journal of East African Natural History 32: 765-781.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 127-135: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

    Literature

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    • Ningombam, D.S. (2014). The family Acanthaceae for the flora of Manipur: 1-115. LAP Lambert academic publishing.
    • Vollesen, K. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(5): 1-184. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Araújo, D. & Alves, M. (2010). Climbing plants of a fragmented area of lowland Atlantic forest, Igarassu, Pernambuco (northeastern Brazil) Phytotaxa 8: 1-24.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Monteiro de Barros, A.A., de Andrade Ribas, L. & Dunn Araujo, D.S. (2009). Trepadeiras do Parque Estadual da Serra do Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Rodriguésia 60: 681-694.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Vikraman, R/R/, Pandurangan, A.G. & Thulasidas, G. (2008). A study on the garden escaped exotics of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala Journal of East African Natural History 32: 765-781.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 127-135: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
    • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
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    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    [A] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [C] © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    [E] Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/