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  1. Family: Acanthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Thunbergia Retz.
      1. Thunbergia fragrans Roxb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Indian Subcontinent to S. China and Indo-China, Philippines. It is has environmental uses.

    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Habit
    Creeper.
    Distribution
    Cultivated and naturalised in Colombia.
    Ecology
    Alt. 8 - 1700 m.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada y naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 8 - 1700 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Trepadora
    [KBu]

    Adhikari, B., Pendry, C.A., Watson, M.F. et al. 2013. Kew Bulletin 68: 651. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9481-x

    Type
    Type: Tab. 67 of Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1: 47 (1796), lectotype selected by Wasshausen (2006: 137).
    Habit
    Twining herb to 3 m
    Stem
    Stem angular, sulcate, glabrous or pubescent, hairs usually deflexed
    Leaves
    Leaves narrowly ovate, 4.5 – 11 × 2 – 3 (− 4.5) cm, base sagittate or hastate, rarely cordate, apex acute to acuminate, margin entire or remotely sinuate, palmately 3 – 5-veined, glabrous or more usually strigillose-pilose, especially on the veins; petioles 1 – 4 cm
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, arising from the leaf axils (very rarely paired); pedicels 3.4 – 8 cm, appressed-hairy; bracteoles green, oblong to ovate, 2 – 3 × 0.7 – 1.3 cm, apex acute, pubescent, ciliate on the margin
    Calyx
    Calyx shortly and densely pubescent to subglabrous formed of a 12 – 17-toothed rim c. 2 mm high, the teeth 3 mm long, linear-subulate
    Corolla
    Corolla white or yellowish-white, sparsely hairy, tube narrowly cylindrical, often slightly contracted below lobes, 2.5 – 4 cm long, 2 – 5 mm wide, lobes obovate, 1.5 – 3 × 2 – 3 cm
    Filaments
    Filaments unequal, shorter 5 – 7 mm, longer 10 – 12 mm, glabrous, anthers smooth, 4 – 5 mm, muticous
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous, style 4 – 5 cm, stigma funnel-shaped
    Fruits
    Capsule glabrous or pubescent, basal part 0.7 – 1.2 cm wide, beak 1.3 – 2 (− 2.5) cm long; seeds 3 – 5 mm wide, strongly rugose
    Distribution
    Peninsular India and Sri Lanka; Himalayas from Central Nepal (Map 2) east through Bhutan to Burma (Myanmar), China and SE Asia; widely cultivated throughout the tropics for its showy white flowers and sometimes reported as a weed.
    Ecology
    Twiner on forest margins and road sides, alt. 200 – 2000 m.
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC). There are numerous records for this species from Nepal where its range extends to over 20,000 km2. It is also common over most of its extensive range.
    Phenology
    Flowering from July to November; fruiting July to December.
    [UPB]
    Unspecified Environmental Uses
    Environmental uses (State of the World's Plants 2016).
    Unspecified Materials Chemicals
    Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Bahamas, Belize, Brazil South, Colombia, Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Fiji, Galápagos, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Niue, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Taiwan, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Thunbergia fragrans Roxb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 29, 2015 Schoch, O. [285], China K000938755
    Oct 29, 2015 Schneider, C. [2157], China K000938756
    Nov 18, 2010 Barrios, S. [35], Montserrat 78048.000
    17169.000
    Jamaica 4303.000
    Wallich, N. [25192], India K000357688 Unknown type material
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 767], Nepal K001111834
    Kerr, A.F.G. [753], Thailand K000838909 Unknown type material
    Kerr, A.F.G. [753], Thailand K000838911 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000357687 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 767] K001111836
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 767] K001111837
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 767] K001111838
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 767], Bangladesh K001111839
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 767] K001111840
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 767] K001111841
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 767] K001111842
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 767] K001111843
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 767] K001111844
    Noton, B. [Cat. no. 767], India K001111835
    Aug 1, 1913 Loher, A. [4297], Philippines Thunbergia loheri K000838902 Unknown type material

    Bibliography

    First published in Pl. Coromandel 1: 47 (1796)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Adhikari, B., Pendry, C.A., Watson, M.F. & Wood, J.R.I. (2013). An account of Thunbergia (Acanthaceae) in Nepal, with a description of the new species T. nepalensis Kew Bulletin 68: 651-661. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Lekhak, M.M. & Yadav, S.R. (2012). Herbacious vegetation of threatened high altitude lateritic plateau ecosystems of Western Ghats, southwestern Maharashtra, India Rheedea 22: 39-61.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Daniel, T.F. (2007 publ. 2008). Notes on the distributions of some Mexican Acanthaceae Ibugana 15: 13-22.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin

    • Wood (2001: 1247).
    • Press et al. (2000: 5);
    • Hara (1982: 145);
    • Clarke (1884: 390);
    • Roxburgh (1796: 47, t. 67)

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • Plant Resources of Tropical Africa https://www.prota4u.org/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Adhikari, B., Pendry, C.A., Watson, M.F. & Wood, J.R.I. (2013). An account of Thunbergia (Acanthaceae) in Nepal, with a description of the new species T. nepalensis Kew Bulletin 68: 651-661. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Lekhak, M.M. & Yadav, S.R. (2012). Herbacious vegetation of threatened high altitude lateritic plateau ecosystems of Western Ghats, southwestern Maharashtra, India Rheedea 22: 39-61.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Daniel, T.F. (2007 publ. 2008). Notes on the distributions of some Mexican Acanthaceae Ibugana 15: 13-22.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0