1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus caliculatus Cav.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Lesser Sunda Islands to N. & E. Australia and Pacific.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; robust; 30-200(-300) cm long. Leaf-sheaths keeled; glabrous on surface, or pilose. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 1-1.6 mm long. Leaf-blades 5-56 cm long; 1-19 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation distinct. Leaf-blade surface scabrous; glabrous, or pilose; sparsely hairy; hairy on both sides. Leaf-blade margins scabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Peduncle hirsute above. Panicle spiciform; linear; loose (internodes 1-3.2mm); 4-23.5 cm long; 1-2.8 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis angular, or with briefly decurrent ribs; pubescent; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1-3 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; connate into a disc below; with 0.5 mm connate; oblong, or ovate, or globose; 4-10.8 mm long; base bluntly stipitate; base 0.3-3 mm long; base pubescent. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; with an outer whorl of thinner bristles; 8-12 in principal whorl; inner bristles longer than outer; with longest bristle scarcely emergent, or with one conspicuously longer bristle; 4-10 mm long; terete; without grooves; rigid; retrorsely scaberulous; pubescent, or ciliate; spinose.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate, or ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 3.8-6.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate, or ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 3.8-6.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 1.2-3.5 mm long; 0.3-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume oblong, or ovate; 2.4-4.8 mm long; 0.6-0.75 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea, or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong, or ovate; 3.5-6.5 mm long; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; 3.8-6.1 mm long; cartilaginous, or coriaceous; much thinner on margins; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex obtuse, or acute. Palea 1 length of lemma; cartilaginous, or coriaceous.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 2 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
    Distribution
    Asia-tropical: Malesia and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, and north-central.
    Reference
    Paniceae. De Lisle 2000.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cook Is., Fiji, Hawaii, Kermadec Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Marquesas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Pitcairn Is., Queensland, Samoa, Society Is., Tonga, Tubuai Is., Vanuatu, Western Australia

    Introduced into:

    Bismarck Archipelago, Philippines

    Cenchrus caliculatus Cav. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Brown, R. [6141], New South Wales K000215202 isotype
    Brown, R. [s.n.], Australia K000215204 Unknown type material
    Powell, T. [s.n.] K001056188
    Woolls, W. [s.n.], New South Wales K000215203
    Brown, F.B.H. [431], Marquesas K001056125 isotype
    Beechey, F.W. [s.n.] K001056189
    Labillardière, J.J.H. [s.n.], New Caledonia K001056190 Unknown type material

    First published in Icon. 5: 39 (1799)

    Accepted by

    • Veldkamp, J.F. (2014). A revision of Cenchrus incl. Pennisetum (Gramineae) in Malesia with some general nomenclatural notes Blumea 59: 59-75.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Peekel, P.G. (1984). Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for Naturalists: 1-638. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0