1. Family: Rutaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Citrus L.
      1. Citrus × aurantium L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Artificial hybrid.

    [FTEA]

    Rutaceae, J.O. Kokwaro (University of Nairobi). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

    Habit
    Tree up to 10 m. high, with slender thorns; stem glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaflet ovate or elliptic, 7–10 cm. long, 4–7 cm. broad; petiole 2–3 cm. long, rather broadly winged.
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary, large, white, with only 5–12% staminate; stamens 20–25; ovary 10–12-locular.
    Fruits
    Fruit subglobose, ± 7 cm. in diameter; peel thick, rough, strongly aromatic, often orange-red at maturity; pulp very sour and bitter.
    [FTEA]

    Rutaceae, J.O. Kokwaro (University of Nairobi). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

    Habit
    Tree 6–12 m. high; twigs angled when young, often with stout spines.
    Leaves
    Leaflet ovate or ovate-elliptic, 5–15 cm. long, 2–8 cm. broad, glabrous; petiole 1–2.5 cm. long, narrowly winged, articulated.
    Flowers
    Flowers single or in small axillary racemes, 2–3 cm. in diameter; petals usually 5, white; stamens 20–25, united into groups; ovary 10–14-locular.
    Fruits
    Fruit with peel to 5 mm. thick, tightly adherent, orange or sometimes remaining green; pulp sweet or subacid, juicy.
    [FTEA]

    Rutaceae, J.O. Kokwaro (University of Nairobi). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

    Habit
    A small tree 2–8 m. high, sometimes spiny.
    Leaves
    Leaflet ovate or elliptic to lanceolate, 4–8 cm. long, 1.5–5 cm. broad, margin usually crenate; petiole narrowly winged or margined.
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary, 15–25 mm. in diameter; petals 5, white; stamens ± 20; ovary 10–15-locular.
    Fruits
    Fruit depressed-globose, 5–8 cm. in diameter, peel thin and loose, yellow or orange-red; pulp sweet and juicy, orange in colour.
    [FTEA]

    Rutaceae, J.O. Kokwaro (University of Nairobi). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

    Habit
    A spreading tree 10–15 m. high; twigs glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves smaller than Pomelo, pale green when young; petiole rather broadly winged; lamina ovate, often crenulate.
    Flowers
    Flowers single or in clusters, axillary, 4–5 cm. in diameter; petals usually 5, white; stamens 20–25; ovary 12–14-locular.
    Fruits
    Fruit globose, 8–15 cm. in diameter; rind thin and greenish or pale yellow; pulp mildly bitter.

    Images

    Distribution

    Introduced into:

    Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Brazil West-Central, Cambodia, Canary Is., Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Italy, Jamaica, Korea, Leeward Is., Libya, Madeira, Mauritius, Mexico Southeast, Morocco, New Caledonia, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Santa Cruz Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Wallis-Futuna Is.

    Citrus × aurantium L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1995 Vasey, N. [39], Madagascar K000383502
    25039.000
    Decary, R. [5485], Madagascar K000383503
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6390], India K001123770
    Citrus × sinensis 7161.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 783 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Yamaji, H., Kondo, K., Kuniga, T., Nesumi, H., Yoshida, T., Hashimoto, K. & Takeda, O. (2013). Origin of cultivated Citrus (Rutaceae) documented by the contents of internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS) in nuclear ribosomal DNA The Journal of Japanese Botany 88: 222-238.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Huang, C. in Ling, Y. Et Ge, X. (1997). Rutaceae Flora Reiublicae Popularis Sinicae 43(2): 1-250. Science Press.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Kokwaro, J.O. (1982). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Rutaceae: 1-52.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1979). Flore des Mascareignes 64-68: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.

    Not accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne. [Cited as C. maxima × C. reticulata.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Vangjeli, J. (2017). Flora Albania Atlas 1: 1-933. Koeltz Botanical Books.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1979). Flore des Mascareignes 64-68: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
    • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/