1. Family: Myrtaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Syzygium Gaertn.
      1. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Queensland.

    [FZ]

    Myrtaceae, F. White. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Evergreen tree 6–15 m. tall.
    Bark
    Bark rough, dark.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina up to 13 x 5 cm., elliptic or oblanceolate-elliptic, apex subacuminate or shortly acuminate, base cuneate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a lateral, lax panicle, mostly borne in the axils of fallen leaves on older stems, very rarely also axillary or terminal.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle (including pseudopedicel) + calyx c. 0·5 cm. long; calyx + upper receptacle 0·2 cm. long; filaments 0·5–0·6 cm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit up to 2·4 x 2 cm., ellipsoid or subglobose.
    [FTEA]

    Myrtaceae, B. Verdcourt, B.Sc., Ph.D. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2001

    Habit
    Glabrous evergreen tree or large shrub, 6–25 m tall with spreading crown; outer bark pale yellow brown, white or grey, densely thinly flaky (described as rough or smooth); inner bark rough, thick and fibrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves shiny, mostly very regularly oblong-elliptic but can be elliptic, oblanceolate-elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, 6–17(–20) cm long, 2.5–8.5 cm wide, acuminate to a rounded tip which is often down-curved, cuneate at the base; ± coriaceous; main lateral nerves numerous and close, ± 40; petiole 0.8–2 cm long.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes terminal and axillary, or mostly lateral borne in the axils of fallen leaves on older stems, about 10 cm long; flowers drying pale orange-brown.
    Calyx
    Calyx often drying orange-brown, obconic, 4–5 mm long, 3–4 mm wide, very obscurely 4(–5)-lobed, practically truncate, rim orange.
    Corolla
    Petals white, elliptic, 4 mm long, 3 mm wide.
    Stamens
    Stamens white, 4–6 mm long with very slender filaments.
    Style
    Style 5–6 mm long.
    Fruits
    Fruits dark purple-red, broadly ellipsoid, oblong or subglobose, often somewhat curved, 2.4–3.5(–5) cm long, 2 cm wide (2x1 cm dry), crowned by 2 mm diameter calyx-rim, 1-seeded (rarely 2–5-seeded or seedless in some varieties); pulp white, acid.
    Habitat
    Native plots, plantation edges, seashore and coastal bush and savanas on coral rock, more or less naturalised in some coastal areas; 0–1650 m
    Distribution
    K4 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 U4 Z India, Sri Lanka to S China, Malesia and Pacificcultivated throughout tropics and often naturalised

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Queensland, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Belize, Bolivia, Comoros, Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Kenya, Leeward Is., Marquesas, New Caledonia, Panamá, Philippines, Society Is., Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 2008 Hamilton, M.A. [318], Montserrat 65315.000
    Harrison, S.G. [1788], Guyana 14464.000
    Faulkner, H. [2752], Tanzania 33311.000
    Pennington, T.D. [17080], Peru 73405.000
    Worthington, T.B. [6407], Sri Lanka K000276778
    Tso, C.L. [23006], Hainan K000793873 isotype
    Welch, J.R. [261], Tanzania K000684211
    Dorr, L.J. [3258], Madagascar K000383233
    Wallich, N. [3562], India K000821377
    Wallich, N. [3562], India K000821378
    Mueller-Dombois, D. [68091108], Sri Lanka K000276779
    Roxburgh, W. [s.n.], India K000821376
    Roxburgh, W. [s.n.], India K000821373
    Roxburgh, R. [s.n.], India K000821369
    Roxburgh, R. [s.n.], India K000821370
    s.coll. [s.n.], Jawa K000800141
    s.coll. [s.n.], Jawa K000800142
    s.coll. [s.n.], Lesser Sunda Is. K000800143
    s.coll. [21], India K000821372
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000821375
    s.coll. [17], India K000821374
    Harmann [s.n.], India K000821371
    Barthelat, F. [718], Mayotte Eugenia cumini K001001442
    Barthelat, F. [617], Mayotte Eugenia cumini K001001443
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 3552] Syzygium obovatum K001119701
    Bruce, H. [Cat. no. 3552], Bangladesh Syzygium obovatum K001119702
    Ekman, E.L. [H10705], Haiti Eugenia odorata K001002604
    Ekman, E.L. [8633], Haiti Eugenia odorata K001002605
    Ekman, E.L. [H3984], Haiti Eugenia odorata K001002606
    Leonard, E.C. [15027], Haiti Eugenia odorata K001002607
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3562] Syzygium caryophyllifolium K001119725
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3562] Syzygium caryophyllifolium K001119726
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3562] Syzygium caryophyllifolium K001119728
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3562] Syzygium caryophyllifolium K001119729
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3562] Syzygium caryophyllifolium K001119730
    Noton, E. [Cat. no. 3562], India Syzygium caryophyllifolium K001119727
    Roxburgh, R. [s.n.], India Syzygium fruticosum K000821368
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 3559] Syzygium fruticosum K001119714
    Bruce, H. [Cat. no. 3559], Bangladesh Syzygium fruticosum K001119715
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3559] Syzygium fruticosum K001119712
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3559] Syzygium fruticosum K001119713
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3559] Syzygium fruticosum K001119716
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3570], India Syzygium tenue K001119752
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3560], Nepal Syzygium jambolanum K001119723
    Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 3560], India Syzygium jambolanum K001119719
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 3560] Syzygium jambolanum K001119718
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3560] Syzygium jambolanum K001119717
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3560], India Syzygium jambolanum K001119720
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3560], India Syzygium jambolanum K001119721
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3560] Syzygium jambolanum K001119722

    First published in Bull. Bur. Pl. Industr. U.S.D.A. 248: 25 (1912)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Byng, J.W. & al. (2016). Revision of Eugenia and Syzygium (Myrtaceae) from the Comoro archipelago Phytotaxa 252: 162-184.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Soh, W.K. & Parnell, J. (2015). A revision of Syzygium Gaertn. (Myrtaceae) in Indochina (Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam) Adansonia, sér. 3, 37: 179-275.
    • Tuiwawa, S.H., Craven, L.A., Sam, C. & Crisp, M.D. (2013). The genus Syzygium (Myrtaceae) in Vanuatu Blumea 58: 53-67.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2009). Flora Mesoamericana 4(1): 1-855. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Govaerts, R., Sobral, N., Ashton, P., Barrie, F., Holst, B.K., Landrum, L.L., Matsumoto, K., Fernanda Mazine, F., Nic Lughadha, E., Proença, C. & al. (2008). World Checklist of Myrtaceae: 1-455. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Byng, J.W. & al. (2016). Revision of Eugenia and Syzygium (Myrtaceae) from the Comoro archipelago Phytotaxa 252: 162-184.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Tuiwawa, S.H., Craven, L.A., Sam, C. & Crisp, M.D. (2013). The genus Syzygium (Myrtaceae) in Vanuatu Blumea 58: 53-67.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2009). Flora Mesoamericana 4(1): 1-855. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Holst, B.K. (2008). Personal communication on Myratceae 8 SEL.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas p. 127 (1994).
    • J.F. Morton, Fruits Warm Climates: 375, pl. 52 (1987).
    • Ashton in Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 2: 443 (1981).
    • F. White in Flora Zambesiaca 4: 203 (1978).
    • Amshoff in Fl. Gabon 11: 17 (1966).
    • Dale, Introd. Trees Uganda: 66 (1953).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 379 (1949).
    • Alston, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 6 (Suppl.): 116 (1931).
    • Skeels in U.S. Dept. Agric. Bur. Pl. Indust. Bull. 248: 25 (1912).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0