1. Family: Potamogetonaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Potamogeton L.
      1. Potamogeton nodosus Poir.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [FTEA]

    Potamogetonaceae, J.J. Symoens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Habit
    Aquatic herb with submerged and floating leaves.
    Rhizomes
    Rhizomes robust, long-creeping, biennial or perennial, much-branched, producing apical fusiform turions.
    Leaves
    Submerged leaves pale green when fresh and green or brownish green when dried, petiolate, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, often absent after fructification; petiole (20– )30– 150 mm long; lamina 50– 280 mm long, 10– 38(– 50) mm wide, translucent, 11– 21-veined, finely denticulate, at least when young, gradually tapering to a cuneate base and an acute apex; floating leaves bright green, petiolate; petiole (30– )100– 210 mm, mostly longer than lamina, ± brown-reddish; lamina lanceolate-elliptical or oblong-elliptical to broadly elliptical or obovate, (40– )50– 150 mm long, 20– 50(– 60) mm wide, 11– 23-veined, opaque but sometimes only slightly leathered, cuneate or ± rounded at base, not discoloured and without folds at its base, apex acute to slightly obtuse; stipules axillary, open, convolute and enfolding the stem, 20– 60(– 125) mm, with 2 veins more prominent than the others and forming dorsal ridges.
    Inflorescences
    Peduncles 40– 130 mm, not or slightly thickened above; spikes cylindrical, 14– 50 mm long, 4– 10 mm wide, with up to 15 contiguous flower whorls.
    Flowers
    Flowers numerous, tepals 0.2– 0.3 mm long, suborbicular, carpels (3– )4.
    Fruits
    Fruitlets brown or reddish brown, 2.7– 4 mm long, ventrally nearly straight, dorsal keel sharp, the lateral rather prominent, beak 0.3– 0.5(– 0.8) mm long, straight or slightly recurved.
    Stem
    Stem anatomy:stele of trio or proto type, endodermis of O-type, interlacunar bundles absent, subepidemal bundles absent, peudohypodermis absent. Stem short-lived or annual, slender to robust, terete, to 2.5 m long, unbranched or sparingly branched.
    Habitat
    Shallow parts of lakes, ponds, pans, pools, swamps, also in rivers, often in muddy soil; water depth 1.5– 2 m; sometimes in extensive colonies, associated with Nymphaea caerulea, N. indica, etc.; ± 750 m
    Distribution
    T4 T8 widely distributed in AfricaNorth Africa (from Morocco to Egypt, including Saharan oases)also in Macaronesia, Socotra, Seychelles and Mascarene Islands, Europe, southwestern, central and tropical Asia to Indonesia, Philippines and New Guinea, North and central America

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Botswana, Brazil North, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central European Rus, Chad, China South-Central, Chita, Colorado, Comoros, Corse, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Haiti, Hawaii, Hungary, Illinois, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Marianas, Marion-Prince Edward, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, Niger, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Romania, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Thailand, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Potamogeton nodosus Poir. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 1, 2004 Cheek, M. [9158], Cameroon K000198655
    Feb 1, 2002 Gosline, G. [186], Cameroon K000025715
    Jan 1, 2002 Hill, C.J. [8216], Illinois K000099526 lectotype
    Jan 1, 1960 Pringle, C.G. [1390], Chihuahua K000574286
    Jan 1, 1950 s.coll. [275], Martinique K000574281 syntype
    Jan 1, 1950 Rovirosa, J.N. [667], Tabasco K000574287
    Jan 1, 1950 Sintenis, P. [2537], Puerto Rico K000574282 isotype
    Jan 1, 1950 Will [470], Jamaica K000574284 lectotype
    Sintenis, P. [2537], Puerto Rico K000574283 Unknown type material
    Tuckerman, E. [s.n.], USA K000203535
    Tuckerman, E. [s.n.], USA K000203536
    Uotila, P. [19333], Iran K000283560
    Hepper, F.N. [4605], Sri Lanka Potamogeton indicus 40986.000
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 5175], India Potamogeton indicus K001120054
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 5175], Myanmar Potamogeton indicus K001120055
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5175] Potamogeton indicus K001120051
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5175], India Potamogeton indicus K001120052
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5175] Potamogeton indicus K001120053
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5175] Potamogeton indicus K001120056
    Feb 10, 2016 Schodde, R. [2318], Papua New Guinea Potamogeton malaianus K001045616

    First published in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck, Encycl., Suppl. 4: 535 (1816)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Fischer, M.A. & Niklfeld, H. (eds.) (2011). Floristische Neufunde (99-123) Neilrichia 6: 365-396.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 17: 1-298. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2009). Flora Zambesiaca 12(2): 1-208. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Packer, J.G. & Gould, J. (2007). Vascular Plants of alberta 1: 1-281. University of Calgary Press.
    • Symoens, J.J. (2006). Potamogetonaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-16.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
    • Tanaka, N., Koyama, T. & Murata, J. (2005). The flowering plants of Mt. Popa, central Myanmar - Results of Myanmar-Japanese joint expeditions, 2000-2004 Makinoa 5: 1-102.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Nooteboom, , H.P. (ed.) (2002). Flora Malesiana 16: 1-224. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
    • Douglas, G.W., Meidinger, D. & Penny, J.L. (2002). Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia, ed. 2: 1-358. Province of British Columbia.
    • Fournet, J. (2002). Flore illustrée des phanérogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique 2: 1325-2538. Gondwana editions.
    • Chaudhary, S.A. (2001). Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 3: 1-368. Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Riyadh.
    • Espejo Serena, A. & López-Ferrari, A.R. (2000). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 1(9-11): 1-337. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (2000). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 14: 1-307. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis ed. 2: 1-382. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. Revised Edition, Volume 2 Special Publications; Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 97: 989-1919.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (1995). Flora of Egypt Checklist: i-xii, 1-287. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Czerepanov, S.K. (1995). Vascular Plants of Russia and Adjacent States (The Former USSR): 1-516. Cambridge University Press.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Noltie, H.J. (1994). Flora of Bhutan 3(1): 1-456. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Khan, M.S. & Mahbuba Halim (1989). Flora of Bangladesh 40: 1-9. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
    • Williams, R.O. (1986). Flora of Trinidad and Tobago 3(4): 279-380. Government Printing Office, Port-of-Spain.
    • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1985). Flora of Iraq 8: 1-440. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1985). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 3. revised edition Sommerfeltia 1: 5-103.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1984). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 8: 1-632. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
    • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1978). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 1: 1-154. Trustees of British Museum, London.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Adams, C.D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica: 1-848. University of the West Indies, Mona.
    • Rechinger. K.H. (1971). Flora Iranica 78-86 Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Andrews, F.W. (1956). The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 1-579. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
    • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
    • Maire, R. (1952). Flore de l'Afrique du Nord 1: 1-366. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
    • Leon, H. (1946). Flora de Cuba 1: 1-441. Cultural S. A., La Habana.
    • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 17: 1-298. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2009). Flora Zambesiaca 12(2): 1-208. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Packer, J.G. & Gould, J. (2007). Vascular Plants of alberta 1: 1-281. University of Calgary Press.
    • Rubtsova, T.A. & Starchenko, V.M. (2006). Floristic records in Jewish Autonomous region Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 91: 476-480.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Kaplan, Z. & Symnoens, J.-J. (2005). Taxonomy, distribution and nomenclature of three confused broad-leaved Potamogeton species occuring in Africa and on surrounding islands Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 148: 329-357.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Nooteboom, , H.P. (ed.) (2002). Flora Malesiana 16: 1-224. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
    • Douglas, G.W., Meidinger, D. & Penny, J.L. (2002). Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia, ed. 2: 1-358. Province of British Columbia.
    • Fournet, J. (2002). Flore illustrée des phanérogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique 2: 1325-2538. Gondwana editions.
    • Chaudhary, S.A. (2001). Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 3: 1-368. Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Riyadh.
    • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2000). Flora of Siberia 1: 1-189. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Espejo Serena, A. & López-Ferrari, A.R. (2000). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 1(9-11): 1-337. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (2000). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 14: 1-307. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis ed. 2: 1-382. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. Revised Edition, Volume 2 Special Publications; Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 97: 989-1919.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (1995). Flora of Egypt Checklist: i-xii, 1-287. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Noltie, H.J. (1994). Flora of Bhutan 3(1): 1-456. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Khan, M.S. & Mahbuba Halim (1989). Flora of Bangladesh 40: 1-9. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Williams, R.O. (1986). Flora of Trinidad and Tobago 3(4): 279-380. Government Printing Office, Port-of-Spain.
    • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1985). Flora of Iraq 8: 1-440. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1985). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 3. revised edition Sommerfeltia 1: 5-103.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Symoens, J.J. & Villiers, J.-F. (1984). Alismatidées, Flagellariacées Flore du Cameroun 26: 1-84. Ministère de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche scientifique (Mesres), Yaoundé.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1984). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 8: 1-632. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
    • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1978). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 1: 1-154. Trustees of British Museum, London.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Adams, C.D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica: 1-848. University of the West Indies, Mona.
    • Rechinger. K.H. (1971). Flora Iranica 78-86 Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
    • Andrews, F.W. (1956). The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 1-579. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
    • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
    • Maire, R. (1952). Flore de l'Afrique du Nord 1: 1-366. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
    • Leon, H. (1946). Flora de Cuba 1: 1-441. Cultural S. A., La Habana.
    • Moscoso, R.H. (1943). Catalogus Florae Domingensis: 1-732. New York.
    • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Kaplan & Symoens in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 148: 332, fig. 1, 2, fig. 3 map (2005).
    • Cook, Aquat. Wetl. Pl. S. Afr.: 235 (2004).
    • Dandy in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 50: 531, map fig. 7 (1937) pro parte.
    • Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Méthod. Bot., Suppl. 4: 535 (1816).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/