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  1. Family: Polygonaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Persicaria Mill.
      1. Persicaria nepalensis (Meisn.) H.Gross

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Tropical & Subtropical Asia.

    [FZ]

    Polygonaceae, I. Nogueira, S. Ortiz & J.A.R. Paiva. Flora Zambesiaca 9:3. 2006

    Habit
    A slender spreading or procumbent annual herb, rooting at the lower nodes.
    Stem
    Stem pale green, greenish-brown or red to bright red, ascending up to 50 cm, glabrous or with scattered gland-tipped hairs, these more numerous below the ocrea.
    Leaves
    Leaf lamina with the upper part 0.5–6 × 0.5–3 cm, ovate to ovate-deltate, acute at the apex, tapering or abruptly contracted and decurrent below for up to 1.5 cm forming a false petiole with auricles at the base, glabrous or with scattered hairs, gland-dotted beneath.
    Ocrea
    Ocrea brown, membranous, 6–8 mm long, entire at the apex.
    Flowers
    Flowers in small, pedunculate heads 6–9 mm in diameter; heads solitary or paired, c. 12-flowered, subtended by a sessile involucral leaf; peduncles up to 5 cm long, with deflexing glandular hairs below the inflorescence; bracts hyaline, 3.5–5 × 1.5–2.5 mm, broadly lanceolate to ovate.
    Perianth
    Perianth whitish, creamy-white or bluish-pink, c. 3 mm long, with 4 elliptic lobes as long as the tube.
    Stamens
    Stamens included in the perianth; filaments 0.1–1.2 mm long, filiform; anthers bluish-black, 0.2–0.3 mm in diameter.
    Style
    Styles 3, c. 1 mm long, united to about the middle.
    Fruits
    Nut dark brown, 2 × 2 mm, lenticular, rarely trigonous, minutely areolate.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 1500 - 2400 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]

    Polygonaceae, R. A. Graham. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

    Habit
    A rather slender, branched, somewhat straggling annual.
    Stem
    Stems basally decumbent and rooting at the nodes, pale green to greenish brown, glabrous or with scattered gland-tipped hairs usually more numerous below the ocreae.
    Ocrea
    Ocreae glabrous, brown, membranous, without a terminal fringe of setae, 6–8 (–10) mm. long.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, ovate or ovate-deltoid, up to 5 × 3 cm., evenly but often abruptly narrowed to an acute apex, basally truncate or abruptly narrowed to the petiole and with basal auricles.
    Petiole
    Petioles winged, up to 1.5 cm. long and to 3.5 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence capitate, the capitula 6–9 mm. broad and terminating the branches singly or in pairs, each capitulum subtended by an involucral, sessile leaf.
    Peduncles
    Peduncles with deflexing gland-tipped hairs below the capitula, otherwise glabrous or largely so.
    Bracts
    Bracts glabrous, ovate-lanceolate, narrowed to an acute apex, 5 mm. long, with a broad, hyaline margin.
    Flowers
    Flowers bluish-white or white, about 12 in each capitulum.
    Perianth
    Perianth ± 3 mm. long, urceolate, with 4 tepals free above the middle, the outer pair folded and the inner pair flat.
    Stamens
    Stamens included; the anthers bluish-black, ± rounded; filaments white, filiform.
    Style
    Styles 3, connate nearly to the apex.
    Fruits
    Nut dark-brown, lenticular, minutely areolate, 2 × 2 mm.
    Figures
    Fig. 3/2, p. 15.
    Habitat
    By streams and rivers, in marshes, grasslands and at forest edges, also as a weed of cultivation; 1140–2700 m.
    Distribution
    throughout tropical Africa and tropical Asia, Madagascar, South Africa (? introduced) K3 K4 K5 T2 T6 T7 T8 U2 U4
    [FWTA]

    Polygonaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    Annual
    Ecology
    By streams in forest
    Flowers
    Flowers white.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Assam, Burundi, Cameroon, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Inner Mongolia, Jawa, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Manchuria, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Philippines, Primorye, Qinghai, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Belgium, British Columbia, Colombia, Connecticut, Ecuador, Florida, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Masachusettes, New York, Pennsylvania, Poland, Turkey, Venezuela

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Persicaria nepalensis (Meisn.) H.Gross appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Strachey, R. [Cat. no. s.n.], India Polygonum perforatum K001132892
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1700], Nepal Polygonum perforatum K001113903
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1700], Nepal Polygonum perforatum K001113904
    Nov 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13532], Cameroon Polygonum nepalense K000580335
    Nov 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [9451], Cameroon Polygonum nepalense K000198107
    Nov 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [8890], Cameroon Polygonum nepalense K000198108
    Nov 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [1641], Cameroon Polygonum nepalense K000198106
    Nov 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [70], Cameroon Polygonum nepalense K000198109
    Feb 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [4603], Cameroon Polygonum nepalense K000746944
    Jun 1, 1999 Buzgo, M. [596], Cameroon Polygonum nepalense K000746945
    Jun 1, 1999 Kamundi, D. [690], Cameroon Polygonum nepalense K000746948
    May 1, 1999 Cheek, M. [8687], Cameroon Polygonum nepalense K000746949
    May 1, 1999 Cheek, M. [8461], Cameroon Polygonum nepalense K000746968
    May 1, 1999 Zapfack, L. [871], Cameroon Polygonum nepalense K000746946
    May 1, 1999 Kamundi, D. [723], Cameroon Polygonum nepalense K000746947
    Gerard, P. [Cat. no. 1701], India Polygonum nepalense K001113906
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1701], Nepal Polygonum nepalense K001113905
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 1701], India Polygonum nepalense K001113907
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 1701], India Polygonum nepalense K001113908

    Bibliography

    First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 49: 277 (1913)

    Accepted by

    • Park, C.W. (ed.) (2018). Flora of Korea 3: 1-131. National Institute of Biological Resources.
    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kowalczyk, T., Pliszko, A. & Drobniak, S.M. (2014). Persicaria nepalensis (Polygonaceae), a new potential invasive anthropophyte in the Polish flora Polish Botanical Journal 59: 255-261.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Akeroyd, J.R. (2013). Docks and Knotweeds of Britain and Ireland: 1-258. Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2005). Flora of North America North of Mexico 5: 1-656. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1983). Flora of Bhutan 1(1): 1-186. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Chayamarit, K. & Balslev, H. (2018). Flora of Thailand 14(1): 1-184. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kowalczyk, T., Pliszko, A. & Drobniak, S.M. (2014). Persicaria nepalensis (Polygonaceae), a new potential invasive anthropophyte in the Polish flora Polish Botanical Journal 59: 255-261.
    • Akeroyd, J.R. (2013). Docks and Knotweeds of Britain and Ireland: 1-258. Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2005). Flora of North America North of Mexico 5: 1-656. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2003). Flora of China 5: 1-505. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1989). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 4: 1-380. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1968). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 3: 1-710. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/