1. Family: Cupressaceae Gray
    1. Juniperus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Subarctic & Temp. Eurasia to Tropical African Mountains, N. America to Guatemala, Caribbean.

    [FTEA]

    Gymnospermae, R. Melville. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

    Habit
    Shrubs and trees when young or throughout life with linear spiny leaves in whorls of 3 or paired, or when adult with scale-like, opposite leaves or mixed foliage, usually dioecious
    Cones
    Cones on short branchlets or males axillary, of rounded, shield-shaped scales bearing 2–6 pollen sacs; females of 2–4 series of scales in pairs or whorls of 3, each with 1–2 ovules; mature cone fleshy, with few to 1 seed with woody testa.
    [FZ]

    Cupressaceae, John Lewis. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Evergreen trees or shrubs, monoecious or dioecious.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually decussate, elliptic, appressed, imbricate and small on mature plants but subulate and spreading on juveniles.
    Cones
    Male cones of several rounded decussate scales bearing 2–6 pollen-sacs.
    Strobili
    Female strobili on short lateral shoots, of 2–8 usually decussate fleshy scales each bearing one ovule; mature strobilus a berry-like fruit, the scales swollen, fleshy and confluent.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1 or few; testa woody.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bermuda, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Canary Is., Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Extinct in:

    Mexican Pacific Is.

    Introduced into:

    Ascension, Cape Provinces, Free State, Lesotho, Mauritius, Réunion, St.Helena, Trinidad-Tobago

    Juniperus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1038 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Zhu, A., Fan, W.S., Adams, R.P. & Mower, J.P. (2018). Phylogenomic evidence for ancient recombination between plastid genomes of the Cupressus-Juniperus-Xanthocyparis complex (Cupressaceae) BioMed Central Evolutionary Biology 18(137): 1-10.
    • Adams, R.P. (2008). Junipers of the World: The genus Juniperus ed. 2: 1-402. Trafford publishing Co., Vancouver.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 461 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 2: 1038 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gen. Pl, ed. 5 : 461 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl. : 1038 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0