1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Lupinus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is America, Medit. to Tanzania.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Herbs or rarely shrubs.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually digitately 5–11(17)-foliolate, elsewhere sometimes 1–3-foliolate; stipules adnate to the base of the petiole.
    Flowers
    Flowers usually numerous in terminal and leaf-opposed racemes, alternate to verticillate; bracteoles often attached to the calyx.
    Calyx
    Calyx deeply 2-lipped; upper lobes separate to largely joined; lower lip entire to shortly 3-toothed.
    Corolla
    Corolla variously coloured, often variegated; standard with a short claw and broad blade, the sides of which are often partially reflexed at anthesis; wings broad, generally enveloping the keel and often marginally adherent; keel beaked.
    Stamens
    Stamens all joined in a closed tube; anthers alternately long and short.
    Pistil
    Ovary usually sessile, 2–many-ovulate; style incurved, glabrous except often for a ring of hairs below the terminal stigma.
    Fruits
    Pod laterally flattened to varying degrees, often constricted between the seeds, dehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds prolate, with the small hilum on a short side, the radicular side nearly straight to concave, the opposing side rounded and often bulging below the hilum, the radicular lobe small and receding.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Herbs, rarely shrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves usually digitately 5–11(–17)-foliolate, sometimes (not in Africa) 1–3-foliolate; stipules adnate to base of petiole
    Flowers
    Flowers usually numerous in terminal and leaf-opposed racemes, alternate to verti-cillate; bracteoles often attached to calyx
    Calyx
    Calyx deeply divided, 2-lipped, the 3 lower lobes, at least, largely joined
    Corolla
    Corolla variously coloured; standard with a short claw and broad blade, the sides of which are often partially reflexed at anthesis; wings broad, generally enveloping keel and often marginally adherent; keel beaked
    Stamens
    Stamens all joined into a closed tube; anthers alternately long and short
    Pistil
    Ovary usually sessile, 2-many-ovulate; style incurved, glabrous except often for a ring of hairs beneath the terminal stigma
    Fruits
    Pod laterally flattened to various degrees, often constricted between the seeds, dehiscent
    Seeds
    Seeds generally orbicular-rectangular to oblong-elliptic, more rounded on the chalaza side, with a prominent radicular lobe and a small sunken hilum; rim-aril inconspicuous.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Shrubs and herbs
    Ecology
    Mostly open habitats, in disturbed places, in poor (often acid) soils
    Distribution
    Mediterranean basin in Europe to Turkey, Middle East and N Africa (c. 13 spp.), plus montane E tropical Africa (2 spp.); disjunctly to N America (c. 120-130 spp.; mainly California and W Rockies to Mexico and C America) and S America (c. 80-90 spp.; mainly Andes and thinly to Brazil and NE Argentina), widely introduced elsewhere
    Note
    Isolated in Genisteae (apart from Anarthrophyllum and Sellocharis) and given separate subtribal status (Bisby, 1981; Talavera & Salgueiro, 1999); species delimitation is very problematic and no workable infrageneric classification is yet available; New World species are currently being revised by C.E. Hughes

    Bisby (1981: 409–425) divided the Genisteae into subtribes Genistinae and Lupininae, a principal division taking both morphological and chemical evidence into account. Polhill (1976) drew attention to the similarities between woody Thermopsideae (Anagyris and allies) and the main part of Genisteae, and between the herbaceous genera of that tribe, Baptisia and Thermopsis, and Lupinus. Crisp et al. (2000) emphasise the lability of staminal fusion in genistoid tribes as a whole, and it might be supposed that the free-stamened Thermopsideae would be better included in Genisteae. In recent molecular analyses (Käss & Wink, 1997; Crisp et al., 2000; Wink & Mohamed, 2003; Wojciechowski et al., 2004), however, all Thermopsideae grouped with Sophora and close allies, and Lupinus was relatively basally branching in Genisteae, above the southern African genera Melolobium and Dichilus (previously placed in Crotalarieae). The similarities between Baptisia, Thermopsis and Lupinus are likely due to strong ecological convergence in temperate habitats.

    The Genisteae forms part of a monophyletic clade, the ‘core genistoids’ which also includes Crotalarieae, Podalyrieae, Thermopsideae, Brongniartieae, Euchresteae and Sophoreae sens. strict. (Crisp et al., 2000; Pennington et al., 2000a; Kajita et al., 2001). Genisteae appears to be sister to the Crotalarieae and both are sister to the Podalyrieae (Crisp et al., 2000; Wojciechowski et al., 2004). There is now convincing evidence that Melolobium, Dichilus, Argyrolobium and Polhillia (the Argyrolobium clade of Van Wyk & Schutte, 1995a), together with Anarthrophyllum (and probably Sellocharis), are part of Genisteae and that the similarities with the Crotalarieae (the remarkable parallels between Dichilus and Lebeckia for example) are superficial only (e.g., Wink & Mohamed, 2003; Wojciechowski et al., 2004). Crisp et al. (2000) suggested that this group of genera may be sister to Crotalarieae but their analysis did not include critical genera such as Adenocarpus and Lupinus. Less emphasis is now given to stamen fusion, and these genera have been formally transferred to Genisteae based on the shared presence of a trifid lower lip of the calyx and the distinctive quinolizidine alkaloids of the a-pyridone type (Van Wyk & Verdoorn, 1990; Van Wyk & Schutte, 1995a; Wink & Mohamed, 2003). Van Wyk et al. (1989) suggest that Spartidium, currently in the Crotalarieae, may be better placed in Genisteae.

    More detailed molecular studies are necessary to fully assess relationships of the genera. Käss & Wink (1997) undertook the first detailed molecular analysis of Genisteae using rbcL and ITS sequences, and limited ITS sampling by Crisp et al. (2000) is largely congruent with this, also supporting a paraphyletic Argyrolobium. The two southern African species of Argyrolobium analysed by Crisp et al. (2000) are dispersed within the Genista group (linked to Spartium and Retama). Käss & Wink (1997) sampled four species of Argyrolobium, two from southern Africa and two from the Mediterranean Region, and these are more basally branching in the tribe (Fig. 38), although the Mediterranean species A. zanonii (Turra) P.W.Ball groups elsewhere near the base of the Cytisus group. These results are largely supported in the chloroplast rbcL analyses of Wink & Mohamed (2003), with more species of Argyrolobium sampled and a placement of A. zanonii as sister to the combined Genista and Cytisus complexes. The ITS analysis of mainly Spanish Genisteae (Pyne, 1999) is also largely congruent with Käss & Wink (1997), except for Argyrolobium where one southern African species groups within the Genista complex and A. zanonii is basally branching to it. The sequence for Lembotropis is acknowledged as suspect in the Pyne analysis, and its position allied to Cytisus (as C. nigricans) (Käss & Wink, 1997; Wink & Mohamed, 2003) is more in agreement with morphological evidence. The biggest problem areas remaining, besides resolving relationships within Argyrolobium, are generic delimitation within the Cytisus and Genista groups and the decision whether to recognise a few large, or many small genera. Morphologically, Argyrolobium is more coherent than the current molecular evidence seems to suggest and a broader sampling and reanalysis would be informative. For the main part of Genisteae, the segregation of the groups of genera around Cytisus and Genista is evident (Käss & Wink, 1997; Cubas et al., 2002; Wink & Mohamed, 2003; Pardo et al., 2004), but the placement of many genera is not well supported. Käss & Wink (1997) conclude that the position of many of these genera which lie between the Cytisus and Genista complexes cannot be established with certainty, probably because of the small number of nucleotide substitutions available (due to rapid and recent diversification) and homoplasy. So as not to obscure the morphological relationships prior to further molecular studies, the subtribal classification of Talavera & Salgueiro (1999), slightly extended and modified, is outlined here. The Genisteae here comprises 25 genera and (551)–562–(572) species (Fig. 38). Adenocarpinae Rouy — Melolobium, Dichilus, Polhillia, Argyrolobium and Adenocarpus (South Africa, tropical Africa (mostly montane) and Mediterranean region, thinly to the Indian subcontinent); this group largely comprises a basal grade on molecular evidence, but all genera need further analysis. Lupininae Rouy — Lupinus, Anarthrophyllum, Sellocharis (Americas, particularly montane regions in the west; Mediterranean region, tropical Africa). Cytisinae (Horan.) Benth. — Cytisophyllum, Argyrocytisus, Petteria, Cytisus, Lembotropis, Calicotome (Europe, Mediterranean region and Macaronesia). Laburninae Rouy — Laburnum, Podocytisus, Hesperolaburnum (Mediterranean, principally Balkans and Atlas Mts); these genera are treated here as being nested within Cytisinae. Erinaceinae Talavera — Erinacea (SW Europe and N Africa); genera in the Erinaceinae and in Spartiinae below, are treated here as being nested within the Genistinae. Spartiinae Benth. — Gonocytisus, Retama, Spartium (Mediterranan region). Genistinae Bronn — Genista, Echinospartum, Stauracanthus, Ulex (Europe, mostly western, and Mediterranean region)

    [LOWO]
    Use
    Important as a domesticated human food crop; L. albus L. (white lupine, lupini bean) and L. luteus L. (yellow lupine) from the Mediterranean and L. mutabilis Sweet (pearl lupine) from the New World are grown for edible, high protein seeds (also for flour); several species widely grown for livestock fodder, green manure, cover crops, fish poisons, medicine, oils and as attractive ornamentals (e.g., Russell hybrids of L. polyphyllus); a number of species are variably toxic and lupinosis causes death in animals, due largely to ingestion of foliage containing quinolizidine alkaloids

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    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Baleares, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, California, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Florida, France, Georgia, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Italy, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Morocco, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, Niger, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northwest Territorie, Nunavut, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Portugal, Québec, Rhode I., Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Spain, Tanzania, Texas, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Sahara, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yugoslavia, Yukon

    Introduced into:

    Assam, Austria, Azores, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, Falkland Is., Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Hawaii, Hungary, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Kuril Is., Madeira, Malawi, Mongolia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, South Australia, South European Russi, Sweden, Switzerland, Tasmania, Transcaucasus, Uganda, Ukraine, Victoria, West Siberia, Western Australia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Lupinus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Rico, L. [1158], Bolivia K000295001
    Rico, L. [1530], Bolivia K000295155
    Rico, L. [1525], Bolivia K000295160
    Rico, L. [1659], Bolivia K000295478
    Rico, L. [2238], Syria K000764185
    Rico, L. [2252], Syria K000764195
    Rico, L. [2256], Syria K000764200
    Meireles, J.E. [551], Brazil K000893601

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 721 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 44.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 322 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 2: 721 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 322 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 721 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0