1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Livistona R.Br.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is NE. Tropical Africa, S. Yemen, Bangladesh to Japan and Australia.

    [PW]
    Morphology
    Leaf (L. australis and L. chinensis; Tomlinson 1961),roots (Seubert 1997), floral (Morrow 1965); stegmata(Killmann and Hong 1989).
    Biology
    The ecology is very varied. There are species adapted to fresh water and peat swamp forest (L. saribus), montane forest (L. tahanensis and L. jenkinsiana), undergrowth of tropical rain forest (L. exigua), dry savannah woodland (L. humilis and L. lorophylla), canyon Species are frequently gregarious, the tallest species often occurring in spectacularly beautiful groves (e.g., L. rotundifolia in Celebes and elsewhere).
    Vernacular
    Cabbage palm (Livistona australis), Chinese fan palm (L. chinensis), serdang (West Malesian species).
    Diagnostic
    Usually tall, single-stemmed fan-palms of the Horn of Africa and Arabia, and Himalayas to Australia; there are a few dwarf species; most are hermaphroditic but a few dioecious species are known.
    Distribution
    About 35 species, ranging from the Horn of Africa and Arabia (Livistonia carinensis), to the Himalayas and Ryukyu Islands, south through Indochina and Malesia to New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Australia, where there is a great diversity of species.
    General Description
    Slender (rarely) to robust, solitary, armed or unarmed, pleonanthic, hermaphroditic (rarely dioecious), shrub or tree palms. Stem erect, obscured at first by persistent sheaths, later becoming bare or covered with persistent petiole bases, conspicuously or obscurely ringed with leaf scars. Leaves induplicate, palmate or costapalmate, marcescent or deciduous under their own weight, a skirt of dead leaves sometimes developing; sheath disintegrating into a conspicuous interwoven, often cloth-like, reddish brown mass of broad and fine fibres; petiole well developed, grooved or flattened adaxially, rounded or angled abaxially, sparsely covered with indumentum or not, expanded and sometimes bulbous at the occasionally persistent base, the margins unarmed or armed with inconspicuous to robust horizontal spines or teeth; adaxial hastula well developed, abaxial hastula poorly developed or absent; blade divided along adaxial ribs to varying depths to form single or, very rarely, multiple-fold segments, these further divided for a short to long distance along abaxial folds near the tip, rarely the adaxial splits almost reaching the hastula and the costa, the segments then all single-fold and very fine; segments stiff or pendulous, interfold filaments sometimes present, scattered caducous indumentum present along ribs, wax sometimes present on the abaxial surface, more rarely waxy on both surfaces, midribs conspicuous, transverse veinlets obscure or conspicuous. Inflorescences interfoliar, solitary, branched to 5 orders, sometimes immediately trifurcating to give 3 equal ‘inflorescences’ enclosed within a common prophyll, each branch with its own prophyll (e.g. L. rotundifolia); peduncle elongate; prophyll 2-keeled, tubular, closely sheathing, variously covered with indumentum or not, frequently tattering at the tip; peduncular bracts 1–few, tubular, like the prophyll; rachis usually longer than the peduncle; rachis bracts variously covered with indumentum, each subtending a first-order branch; bracts of subsequent orders generally inconspicuous; rachillae erect, pendulous or divaricate, glabrous or hairy, usually numerous, bearing spirally arranged flowers, singly or in cincinni of up to 5, sessile or on low tubercles or slender stalks, each group subtended by a minute rachilla bract and each flower bearing a minute bracteole. Flowers small to very small, usually cream-coloured; calyx with receptacle often producing a short, broad stalk, tubular above, tipped with 3 triangular lobes, these sometimes imbricate at the very base, glabrous or hairy; corolla shallow, tubular at the base, apically with 3 triangular, valvate lobes; stamens 6, epipetalous, the filaments connate to form a fleshy ring, tipped with short, slender distinct filaments, anthers medifixed, rounded or oblong, latrorse; gynoecium tricarpellate, the carpels wedge-shaped, distinct in the ovarian region, connate distally to form a common, slender style, with an apical, dot-like or minutely 3-lobed stigma, ovule basally attached, anatropous; where dioecious, anthers or ovules not developing but otherwise as in the hermaphroditic. Pollen ellipsoidal, bi-symmetric, occasionally slightly asymmetric; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine tectate, psilate and sparsely perforate, finely perforate, perforate, perforate-rugulate, foveolate or finely reticulate, aperture margin sometimes slightly finer; infratectum columellate; longest axis 19–37 µm [10/33]. Fruit usually developing from 1 carpel, globose to ovoid, pyriform, or ellipsoidal, small to medium-sized, variously coloured, green, scarlet, blue-green, blue-black, black or dark brown, stigmatic remains apical, sterile carpel remains basal; epicarp smooth, dull or shining, often with a wax bloom, mesocarp thin or thick, fleshy or dry, somewhat fibrous, usually easily separated from the bony or woody endocarp. Seed ellipsoidal or globose, basally attached, hilum circular or ± elongate, raphe branches few or lacking, endosperm homogeneous, penetrated laterally by a variable, frequently convoluted intrusion of seed coat; embryo lateral. Germination remote-tubular; eophyll lanceolate, plicate, minutely toothed apically. Cytology: 2n = 36.
    [PW]
    Use
    Many are planted as ornamentals. Leaves of severalspecies are used for thatch, their segments for umbrellas, andfibres for rope and cloth. Trunks have been used for wood.The ‘cabbage’ of L. australis is edible.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Hainan, Japan, Jawa, Laos, Malaya, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Philippines, Queensland, Somalia, Taiwan, Thailand, Victoria, Vietnam, Western Australia, Yemen

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Bermuda, Dominican Republic, Florida, Hawaii, Kazan-retto, KwaZulu-Natal, Marianas, Mauritius, New Caledonia, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Society Is., Trinidad-Tobago

    Livistona R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 29, 2003 unknown [s.n.], India K000209615
    Sep 29, 2003 Rutherford, S. [R71], Sri Lanka K000209897
    Aug 4, 2003 Wendland, H. [s.n.] K000209986
    Jun 9, 2003 Rutherford, S. [R90], Sri Lanka K000209896
    Sep 1, 1996 Dransfield, J. [JDs.n.], Thailand K000209894
    Aug 11, 1995 Averyanov, L. [VH1429], Vietnam K000462471
    Oct 7, 1993 Matthew, K.M. [RHT54183], India K000209895
    Mar 6, 1979 Lazarides, M. [8552], Australia K000209832
    Wilkin, P. [1027], Thailand 64202.000
    Baker, W.J. [851], Indonesia 63992.000
    Baker, W.J. [851], Indonesia K000209676
    Wallich [8620] K000209616
    illegible [s.n.] K000209987
    Maturbongs, R.A. [RAM659], Indonesia K000114356
    Maturbongs, R.A. [732], Indonesia K000030687
    Kjaer, A. [514], Papua New Guinea K000114300
    Rutherford, S. [s.n.], Sri Lanka K000209892
    Rutherford, S. [R130], Sri Lanka K000209893
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8620] K001125980

    First published in Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.: 267 (1810)

    Accepted by

    • Bacon, C.D. & Baker, W.J. (2011). Saribus resurrected Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 55: 109-116.
    • Dowe, J.L. (2009). A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae) Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 60: 185-344.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0