1. Family: Araceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Alocasia (Schott) G.Don
      1. Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G.Don

        Elephant ear taro is a giant plant with distinctive leaves and is valued as an ornamental. The swollen underground stems are used for food and animal fodder, and the roots and leaves are used medicinally in some countries. For example, in Hawaii, it has been used to treat digestive complaints, as a topical dressing for burns, and as a love charm. In the Philippines, the leaf stalks have been used to relieve toothache and on Java the roots and leaves have been used to relieve pain and redness. The rhizomes contain an anti-fungal protein called alocasin.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description

    Elephant ear taro is a massive aroid with a spectacular cluster of upwardly pointing, arrow-shaped leaf blades. The swollen underground stems are used for food and animal fodder, and the roots and leaves are used medicinally in some countries. For example, in Hawaii, it has been used to treat digestive complaints, as a topical dressing for burns, and as a love charm. In the Philippines, the leaf stalks have been used to relieve toothache and on Java the roots and leaves have been used to relieve pain and redness. The rhizomes contain an anti-fungal protein called alocasin.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Alocasia macrorrhizos is found throughout IndoMalesia and Oceania. It is not clear where, if anywhere, this species occurs truly wild. It has evidently been distributed widely in tropical Asia in prehistoric times as a subsistence crop and is now pantropical by introduction as an ornamental.

    Description

    Elephant ear taro is a giant plant with distinctive leaves and is valued as an ornamental. The leaf blades can reach one metre in length. The flowering parts are often inconspicuous, and are partly concealed by the floral bract. This bends back and then falls off at maturity though, to reveal a spike of red berries, each of which contains several pale brown seeds.

    Elephant ear taro is a massive herb, forming a thick erect trunk in large plants and reaching four metres in height. The leaves are held erect, with petioles (leaf stalks) up to 130 cm long. The leaves are stout, with sheathing in the lower part. The leaf blades are arrow-shaped, bluntly triangular in general outline with somewhat rounded basal lobes. There are about nine main veins, diverging at an angle of about 60 degrees.

    The inflorescences (flower stalks) occur in pairs amongst the leaf bases, preceded by a cataphyll (scale leaf). The spathe (floral bract) is about 13 to 35 cm long, constricted about 1/6 of the way from the base, with the lower part folded into a green tube. The limb is oblong, pale yellow, cowl-like when in flower, then bending back and deciduous. The spadix (flower spike) is slightly shorter than the spathe. The lowermost 1 to 2 cm of the spadix is female and covered with about 30 pistils (female parts). Each pistil consists of a pale green ovary with a yellow 3 to 5 -lobed stigma sitting directly on it. Above the female flowers there is a zone with about four whorls of white sterile organs corresponding in position to the spathe constriction. The next floral zone is male, covered with tightly packed white rhomboid to hexagonal male flowers. At the tip of the spadix is a yellowish appendix, which is at least half the spadix length and covered with tiny irregular furrows.

    The fruit is a few-seeded red berry, which when ripe is exposed by the recurving segments of the lower spathe tube, which detaches on maturity. Each berry has several pale brown seeds about 4 mm in diameter.

    Uses

    The rhizomes (swollen underground stems) of Alocasia macrorrhizos are traditionally eaten as a starchy food throughout IndoMalesia and Oceania. It is thought to have once been a major staple food in Micronesia that became extinct there prior to the introduction of related taro species (for example Colocasia esculenta ). The rhizomes are used for animal feed and famine food for people. They require prolonged preparation and boiling or roasting to rid them of stinging calcium oxalate crystals.

    Today, Alocasia macrorrhizos is a popular ornamental plant grown for its large foliage and striking aroid inflorescences. It has also shown promise in sewerage treatment, as it grows rapidly in wetland conditions and has a propensity to accumulate metal contaminants such as zinc.

    Ecology
    Tropical humid forest. Commonly found growing around human settlements.
    Conservation
    This species has not yet been assessed against IUCN red list criteria.
    Hazards

    The rhizomes (swollen underground stems) contain stinging calcium oxalate crystals.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 200 m.; Islas Caribeñas, Pacífico.
    Habit
    Hierba
    [CATE]

    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

    General Description

    Massive pachycaul, usually eventually forming a thick erect trunk, to c. 4 m tall, usually more or less devoid of old leaf bases; leaves several together, held erect; petioles to c. 130 cm long, stout, sheathing in the lower c. ½, eglandular; wings of sheath persistent, straight to somewhat recurved; blades sagittate, bluntly triangular in general outline; anterior lobe c. 70 cm to over a metre long, c. 60 – 90 cm wide, with c. 9 rather distant primary lateral veins diverging at an angle of c. 60 degrees; glands in axils of primary veins distinct; secondary venation flush with the lamina or but slightly raised abaxially, not forming interprimary collective veins or these poorly defined; posterior lobes c. 1/3 – ½ the length of the anterior, somewhat rotund, often overlapping; inflorescences paired amongst the leaf bases, subtended by a cataphyll; peduncles barely exceeding the cataphylls at anthesis; spathe variable in length, c. 13 – 35 cm long, constricted about 1/6 of the way from the base; lower part green; limb oblong, cowl-like at anthesis, later reflexed, then deliquescent and deciduous, membranous, pale yellow; spadix slightly shorter than the spathe; female zone 1 – 2 cm long, c. 1.5 cm diam., with c. 30 pistils; ovaries pale green, close-packed, c. 3 mm diam., unilocular; stigma sessile, 3 – 5 –lobed, the lobes conical, yellow; interstice of sterile organs slightly shorter than to equalling the female zone, of about 4 whorls, white, slightly constricted corresponding with the constriction of the spathe; male zone cylindrical, c. 2 cm diam., c. 3 – 7 cm long, white; synandria rhomboid-hexagonal, with slightly convex tops, 4 – 6 staminate, with the anthers opening by lateral slits not reaching the top of the synandrium; appendix yellowish, slightly thicker than the male zone at the base, thence tapering, equalling to considerably exceeding half the length of the spadix, staminodial; fruit a few-seeded red berry exposed by the recurved segments of the dehiscing lower spathe; seeds several, c. 4 mm diam., pale brown, strophiolate.

    Pachycaul herbs, massive, to 4m, evergreen, latex slightly milky. Stem erect, to ca. 1.5m, decumbent. Leaves several together, clustered at tips of stems in larger plants; petiole to 1.3m, sheathing in proximal 1/3–1/2; leaf blade light green on both surfaces, ovate-sagittate, bluntly triangular, up to 120 × 50cm, ± erect, margin entire to very slightly sinuous; posterior lobes 1/3–1/2 length of anterior, somewhat rotund, often overlapping, naked in sinus in mature plants, weakly peltate in juveniles; primary lateral veins ca. 9 on each side of anterior lobe, axillary glands distinct, secondary venation not forming interprimary collective veins. Inflorescences paired among leaf bases, subtended by membranous cataphylls; peduncle barely exceeding cataphylls at anthesis. Spathe 13–35cm, constricted ca. 1/6 from base; proximal spathe green, ovoid; limb cowl-like at anthesis, later reflexed, then deliquescent, pale yellow, broadly oblong-lanceolate, 10.5–29cm. Spadix slightly shorter than spathe, shortly stipitate; female zone conic-cylindric, 1–2 × ca. 1.5cm; pistil pale green, ca. 3mm in diam.; stigma yellow, sessile, 3–5-lobed; sterile zone slightly equaling female zone, whitish; synandrodes rhombic-hexagonal, ca. 2.5mm in diam.; male zone whitish, cylindric, 3–7 × ca. 2cm; synandria 5–9merous, rhombic-hexagonal, convex-topped, ca. 2mm in diam.; appendix yellowish, slightly tapering, at least 1/2 length of spadix. Fruiting spathe green, oblong-ellipsoid, ca. 8cm. Fruit ripening scarlet, ellipsoid, ca. 12 × 8mm.
    Distribution

    IndoMalesia to Oceania. It is not clear where, if anywhere, this species occurs wild. It has evidently been distributed widely in tropical Asia in prehistoric times as a subsistence crop and is now pantropical by introduction as an ornamental.

    Vernacular
    re ya hai yu
    Habitat
    Ditches and wet areas of farmlands and wastelands, never away from human disturbance.
    Road sides, waste places, gardens, mostly in wet sites at low to medium elevation
    [KSP]
    Use
    Food, medicine, ornamental.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Maluku, New Guinea, Philippines, Queensland, Solomon Is., Sulawesi

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Brazil Northeast, Cambodia, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Fiji, Galápagos, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Jawa, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maldives, Marianas, Marshall Is., New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niue, Paraguay, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Windward Is.

    Common Names

    English
    Elephant ear taro

    Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G.Don appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 1998 Bull, W.? [s.n.] K000291563 Unknown type material
    Oct 1, 1998 Bull, W.? [s.n.] K000291562 Unknown type material
    Oct 1, 1998 Bull, W. [s.n.], Rio de Janeiro K001067608 Unknown type material
    Oct 1, 1998 Bull, W. [s.n.], Rio de Janeiro K001067609 Unknown type material
    Oct 1, 1998 Bull, W. [s.n.], Rio de Janeiro K001067611 Unknown type material
    Oct 1, 1998 Bull, W. [s.n.], Rio de Janeiro K001067613 Unknown type material
    Oct 1, 1998 Bull, W. [s.n.], Rio de Janeiro K001067612 Unknown type material
    Oct 1, 1998 Bull, W. [s.n.], Rio de Janeiro K001067610 Unknown type material
    Harley, W.J. [2135], Liberia 25022.000
    Forman, L.L. [44], Indonesia 18969.000
    25830.000

    First published in R.Sweet, Hort. Brit., ed. 3: 631 (1839)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boyce, P.C., Sookchaloem, D., Hetterscheid, W.L.A., Gusman, G., Jacobsen, N., Idei, T. & Nguyen, V.D. (2012). Flora of Thailand 11(2): 101-325. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Mansor, M., Boyce, P.C., Othman, A.S. & Sulaiman, B. (2012). The Araceae of peninsular Malaysia: 1-146. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia.
    • Kurniawan, A., Adjie, B. & Boyce, P.C. (2011). Studies on the Araceae of Sulawesi I: New taxa of Schismatoglottis and Homalomena, and a preliminary checklist and keys for Sulawesi Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 61: 40-50.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Boyce, P.C. (2008). A review of Alocasia (Araceae: Colocasieae) for Thailand including a novel species and new species records from south-west Thailand Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 36: 1-17.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Schinini, A. (2006). Adenda a las Araceae de la flora del Paraguay Rojasiana 7(2): 51-62.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Albano, P.-O. (2003). La Conaissance des Plantes Exotiques: 1-324. Édisud, Aix-en-Provence.
    • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ara, H. (2001). An Annotated Checklist of Aroids of Bangladesh Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 8(2): 19-34.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Parham, B.E.V. (1971). The Vegetation of the Tokelau Islands with special reference to the plants of Nukunonu Atoll New Zealand Journal of Botany 9: 576-609.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.

    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles
    • Ivancic, A., Roupsard, O., Garcia, J.Q., Lebot, V., Pochyla, V. & Okpul, T. (2005). Thermogenic flowering of the giant taro ( Alocasia macrorrhizos, Araceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 83: 647 – 655 [for flowering behaviour]
    • Samake, M., Wu, Q.-T., Mo, C.-H-. & Morel, J.-L. (2004). Plants grown on sewage sludge in South China and its relevance to sludge stabilization and metal removal. Journal of Environmental Sciences 15: 622-627.

    • Lee, R.A., Balick, M.J., Ling, D.L., Sohl, F., Brosi, B.J. & Raynor, W., (2001). Cultural dynamism and change: an example from the Federated States of Micronesia. Economic Botany 55: 9-13.
    • Hay, A. (1999). The genus Alocasia (Araceae-Colocasieae) in the Philippines. Gardens Bull. Singapore. 51: 1 - 41.
    • Hay, A. (1998). The genus Alocasia (Araceae-Colocasieae) in West Malesia and Sulawesi. Gardens Bull. Singapore. 50: 221-334. [for descriptive and geographical information]
    • Hay, A. & Wise, R. (1991). The genus Alocasia (Araceae) in Australasia. Blumea. 35: 499-545 [for descriptive and geographical information]
    • Quisumbing, E. (1978). Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. Katha, Quezon City.
    • Akana, A. (1922). Hawaiian Herbs of Medicinal Value. Pacific Book House, Honolulu.
    CATE Araceae
    • Hay, A. 1998. The genus Alocasia (Araceae-Colocasieae) in West Malesia and Sulawesi. Gardens Bull. Singapore. 50: 221-334
    • Hay, A. & Wise, R. 1991. The genus Alocasia (Araceae) in Australasia. Blumea. 35: 499-545.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Moreira de Andrade, I. & al. (2013). The Araceae in Ceará, Brazil: humid forest plants in semi-arid region Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 64: 445-477.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Mansor, M., Boyce, P.C., Othman, A.S. & Sulaiman, B. (2012). The Araceae of peninsular Malaysia: 1-146. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Boyce, P.C. (2008). A review of Alocasia (Araceae: Colocasieae) for Thailand including a novel species and new species records from south-west Thailand Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 36: 1-17.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Schinini, A. (2006). Adenda a las Araceae de la flora del Paraguay Rojasiana 7(2): 51-62.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Ara, H. (2001). An Annotated Checklist of Aroids of Bangladesh Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 8(2): 19-34.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Parham, B.E.V. (1971). The Vegetation of the Tokelau Islands with special reference to the plants of Nukunonu Atoll New Zealand Journal of Botany 9: 576-609.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    CATE Araceae
    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0