1. Family: Amaranthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Chenopodium L.
      1. Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J.Koch & Ziz

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe, Medit. to Nepal, Eritrea to S. Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Chenopodiaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Annual herb (or ? sometimes a short-lived perennial with stems becoming woody below), closely related to C. album, up to 0.6–1.5 (3) m. high, erect, normally much branched, green to almost white, rarely red-tinged, more or less clothed with mealy vesicular hairs, sometimes densely so on young shoots inflorescences and undersides of leaves.
    Leaves
    Leaves variable, mostly broadly and shortly rhombic-ovate, the median and lower almost as broad as long, c. 0.7–5.4 × 0.4–5.4 cm., leaf margins usually with up to about 10 mostly shallow teeth or lobes on each side, often the lowermost teeth or lobes more prominent divergent and often bilobed; sometimes margins entire or nearly so and leaves elliptic especially (it seems) if plants perennate; apex of leaf rounded to acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a usually ample panicle of very numerous small densely or laxly spicately or rarely cymosely arranged dense rounded clusters (“glomerules”) of minute grey to greenish flowers, the latter 1–1.5 mm. in diam.
    Perianth
    Perianth-segments 5, papillose with grey-mealy hairs on margins and outside, each segment with a prominent green keel in upper part.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5.
    Fruits
    Pericarp somewhat persistent, but readily scraped off seed. Seeds black, shining, subcircular, 1.0–1.5 mm. in diam. bluntly keeled; testa (seen under microscope) marked with numerous spaced radial furrows and minute papillose roughening in between.
    [FTEA]

    Chenopodiaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1954

    Habit
    Herb up to 60–150 (–300) cm. high, annual or apparently sometimes a short-lived perennial which may become woody below, normally very much branched, green to almost white, rarely red-tinged, grey-mealy, sometimes densely so on young shoots, inflorescences and undersides of leaves.
    Leaves
    Leaves variable, mostly broadly and shortly rhombic-ovate, the median and lower almost as broad as long, from about (0.7 x 0.4 cm.–) 1 x 0.7–1 cm. to 3.7 x 2.8–3.7 cm. and 5.4 x 5.4 cm., in the lower third or about the middle normally with a short prominent often bilobed divergent lateral lobe each side, the margins above this lobe entire or with up to several teeth, apex of leaf rounded or acute; in African specimens the lobes not uncommonly less prominent or even the leaves subentire; upper leaves smaller and more acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, usually ample, of very numerous small densely or laxly spicately or rarely cymosely arranged dense rounded clusters (“glomerules”) of minute grey to greenish flowers, latter 1–1.5 mm. in diameter.
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, papillose on margins and outside, each with a prominent green keel in upper part.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5.
    Fruits
    Pericarp somewhat persistent, but readily scraped off seed.
    Seeds
    Seeds (Fig. 2/2, p. 3) black, shining, 1.1–1.5 mm. in diameter, bluntly keeled, testa under microscope marked with radial furrows and minute irregular papillose roughening in between.
    Habitat
    A weed of cultivation and settled areas; 760–2100 m.
    Distribution
    Europe and the Mediterranean Region, eastwards to India and ? Mongolia, southwards through tropical Africa to Northern and Southern Rhodesia, Angola and ? S. Africaadventive in N. America K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Altay, Angola, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bulgaria, Burundi, Central European Rus, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Kenya, Kriti, Krym, Madeira, Malawi, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, North Caucasus, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Switzerland, Tanzania, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Belgium, Botswana, Cape Provinces, Illinois, Indiana, KwaZulu-Natal, Maryland, Mauritius, Mexico Northwest, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Réunion, South Australia, Swaziland, Sweden

    Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J.Koch & Ziz appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 27, 1953 Holst, C. [8894], Tanzania K000243858
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 12], Great Britain K000914045
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 470], Great Britain K000914046
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 535], Great Britain K000914047

    First published in Cat. Pl. Palat.: 6 (1814)

    Accepted by

    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Breitfeld, M. & Horbach, H.-D. (2013). Interessante Funde aus Nordostbayern Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der heimischen Flora 83: 169-174.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Malyshev, L.I. (2003). Flora of Siberia 5: 1-305. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brenan, J.P.M. (1954). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Chenopodiaceae: 1-26.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hauman in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 2: 7 (1951).
    • Bak. & C. B. Cl. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6 (1): 78 (1909).
    • DC., Fl. Fr. 6: 372 (1815).
    • [Schrad. ex] Koch & Ziz, Cat. Pl. Palat. 6 (1814).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0