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  1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Chrozophora Neck. ex A.Juss.
      1. Chrozophora plicata (Vahl) A.Juss. ex Spreng.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula to Indo-China, Jawa.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A prostrate or ascending, softly white stellate-pubescent bushy annual herb up to 0.5 m. high and 1.5 m. across.
    Indumentum
    Stellate hairs stipitate or not.
    Stem
    Stems terete or rounded-trigonous.
    Leaves
    Petioles (0.5–)1.5–4(–5.5) cm. long; blade broadly ovate, ovate or ovate-rhombic, sometimes shallowly trilobate, 1.5–5 cm. long, 1–4(–4.5) cm. broad, obtuse or rounded, somewhat asymmetrically subcuneate, truncate or shallowly cordate, with 2 discoid or shallowly crateriform shining blackish-purple glands with inrolled minutely pubescent margins, at the base near the junction with the petiole, plicate-undulate when young, later ± flat and irregularly shallowly repand-dentate to subentire, thinly chartaceous, 3–5-nerved from the base, lateral nerves 2–3 pairs, tertiary nerve network arachnoid, not prominent above and only slightly so beneath, bullate above and correspondingly foveolate beneath when young, the bullae often overlapping incubously, later becoming ± plane.
    Stipules
    Stipules linear, 2 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 1.5–4 cm. long; bracts resembling the stipules.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 1 mm. long; calyx-lobes lanceolate, 3 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, acute, stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within; petals elliptic-oblong, 3 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, subacute or obtuse, lepidote without, glabrous within, pink; disc ± 1 mm. diameter; staminal column 4 mm. high, anthers 15, (2–)3-seriate, 1 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Female flowers:pedicels 3–7 mm. long, extending to 2.5–3 cm. in fruit; sepals linear-lanceolate, 1.5–2 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide, acute, stellate-pubescent without, minutely simply pubescent within; petals minute or 0; disc ± as in the ♂ flowers; ovary tridymous, 2 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, densely stellate-pubescent; styles 1.5–2 mm. long, deeply bifid, abaxially stellate-pubescent, adaxially coarsely papillose, red. Male flowers:pedicels 1 mm. long; calyx-lobes lanceolate, 3 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, acute, stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within; petals elliptic-oblong, 3 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, subacute or obtuse, lepidote without, glabrous within, pink; disc ± 1 mm. diameter; staminal column 4 mm. high, anthers 15, (2–)3-seriate, 1 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels 3–7 mm. long, extending to 2.5–3 cm. in fruit; sepals linear-lanceolate, 1.5–2 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide, acute, stellate-pubescent without, minutely simply pubescent within; petals minute or 0; disc ± as in the ♂ flowers; ovary tridymous, 2 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, densely stellate-pubescent; styles 1.5–2 mm. long, deeply bifid, abaxially stellate-pubescent, adaxially coarsely papillose, red.
    Fruits
    Fruit strongly tridymous, 4–5 mm. long, 8–9 mm. diameter, densely stellate-pubescent, green at first, later becoming bluish or reddish purple.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid-subglobose, apiculate, 3.5 mm. long, 3 mm. diameter, minutely tuberculate-rugulose or ± smooth, pale grey.
    Figures
    Fig. 28.
    Habitat
    Dry areas subject to flooding in rains, along rivers and drainage channels; 550–1150 m.
    Distribution
    K1 T1 T4 T5 T7
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    A prostrate, decumbent or ± erect, branched annual or perennial herb up to c. 50 cm high.
    Stem
    Stems yellowish or pinkish.
    Petiole
    Petioles 1–7 cm long.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 1.5–7 × 1–5.5 cm, broadly ovate to rhombic-ovate, sometimes shallowly 3-lobed, obtuse or rounded at the apex, asymmetrically cuneate, truncate or shallowly cordate at the base, plicate-undulate at first, later ± flat and shallowly repand-dentate or ± entire on the margin, thinly chartaceous, with 2 discoid dark purple glands at the base, 3–5-nerved from the base; leaf upper surface at first incubously bullate, later ± flat; lateral nerves in 2–3 pairs, tertiary nerves arachnoid, scarcely prominent on both surfaces.
    Stipules
    Stipules 1–2 mm long, subulate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 1.5–3.5 cm long; bracts resembling the stipules.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels c. 1 mm long; calyx lobes 3 × 1 mm, lanceolate, acute, stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within; petals 3 × 1 mm, elliptic-oblong, ± obtuse, lepidote without, glabrous within, yellowish-orange or pinkish; disk c. 1 mm in diameter; staminal column 4 mm high, anthers 15 in (2)3 series, 1 mm long.
    Flowers
    Female flowers: pedicels 3–7 mm long, extending to 1.5–2 cm in fruit; sepals 1.5–2 × 0.5 mm, linear-lanceolate, acute, stellate-pubescent without, simply puberulous within; petals minute or absent; disk more or less as in the male flowers; ovary 2 × 2 mm, 3-lobed, densely stellate-pubescent; styles 1.5–2 mm long, abaxially stellate-pubescent, adaxially coarsely-papillose, crimson. Male flowers: pedicels c. 1 mm long; calyx lobes 3 × 1 mm, lanceolate, acute, stellate-pubescent without, glabrous within; petals 3 × 1 mm, elliptic-oblong, ± obtuse, lepidote without, glabrous within, yellowish-orange or pinkish; disk c. 1 mm in diameter; staminal column 4 mm high, anthers 15 in (2)3 series, 1 mm long.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 3–7 mm long, extending to 1.5–2 cm in fruit; sepals 1.5–2 × 0.5 mm, linear-lanceolate, acute, stellate-pubescent without, simply puberulous within; petals minute or absent; disk more or less as in the male flowers; ovary 2 × 2 mm, 3-lobed, densely stellate-pubescent; styles 1.5–2 mm long, abaxially stellate-pubescent, adaxially coarsely-papillose, crimson.
    Fruits
    Fruit 4–5 × 7–9 mm, strongly 3-lobed, densely stellate-pubescent, green at first, later reddish- or bluish-purple.
    Seeds
    Seeds 3.5 × 3 mm, minutely tuberculate-rugulose or ± smooth; sarcotesta papery when dry, pale grey; sclerotesta dark brownish or blackish.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gulf States, India, Jawa, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Chrozophora plicata (Vahl) A.Juss. ex Spreng. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Michelmore, A.P.G. [797], Tanzania K000452789
    Burtt, B.D. [4790], Tanzania K000452788
    Thulin, M. [725], Tanzania K000452791
    Richards, H.M. [13511], Tanzania K000452790
    s.coll. [s.n], India Chrozophora parvifolia K000246933 Unknown type material

    Bibliography

    First published in Syst. Veg. 3: 850 (1826)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Lebrun, J.-P. (1998). Catalogue des plantes de la Mauritanie et du Sahara Occidental Boissiera 55: 1-322.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl. Pflanzenr. Euph. 6: 19.
    • — F.T.A. 6, 1: 834 (incl. var. obliquifolia (Vis.) Prain)

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 398 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 58 (1952).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 51 (1921).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147(6): 19 (1912).
    • Prain in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 834 (1912).
    • Pax in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 237 (1895).
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 747 (1866).
    • Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3: 850 (1826), excl. syn. Lam.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0