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  1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus caudatus (Schrad.) Kuntze

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa to Arabian Peninsula.

    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Stout perennial up to 5 m. high
    Ecology
    Streambanks.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes elongated. Butt sheaths pilose. Culms erect; 45-120 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades flat, or convolute; 10-40 cm long; 3-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade apex acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; 6-17 cm long. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with lateral stumps on axis. Panicle axis with rounded ribs; smooth; glabrous; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; oblong; 2-8 mm long; base obtuse. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; with one conspicuously longer bristle; 4-10 mm long; terete; flexible; glabrous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; acute; 3.5-4.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; acute; 3.5-4.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure, or two; similar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblate; 0-0.5 mm long; 0-0.1 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 0 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex truncate. Upper glume ovate; 0.1-0.15 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 0-1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein absent, or distinct. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; 0.5-0.66 length of spikelet; membranous; 1-3 -veined; smooth, or scaberulous; rough above; acute, or acuminate. Fertile lemma ovate; 3-4 mm long; membranous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous; rough above. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex acute. Palea 1.1 length of lemma; membranous.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 1.5-2.5 mm long; anther tip smooth. Styles free to the base, or connate below.
    Distribution
    Africa: west-central tropical and east tropical.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Coarse densely caespitose perennial with rhizomes; culms 45–120 cm. high, erect.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, 10–40 cm. long, 3–10 mm. wide, flat or convolute, tapering to an acute tip; basal sheaths loosely pilose, at least when young.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle linear, 6–17 cm. long; rhachis cylindrical, with rounded ribs and distinct peduncle-stumps, scaberulous; involucre enclosing 1 subsessile spikelet, stipeless but not truncate at the base; bristles glabrous, the longest 4–10 mm.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets elliptic-lanceolate, 3.5–4.5 mm. long, acute; lower glume suppressed or up to 0.5 mm.; upper glume up to 1/6 the length of the spikelet, acute to obtuse; lower lemma barren, 1/3–2/3 the length of the spikelet, acute to acuminate; upper lemma acute, slightly shorter than the spikelet, being overtopped by the palea; anther-tips smooth.
    Habitat
    Wet or low-lying places in mountain grassland or bamboo; 2300–2600 m.
    Distribution
    U2
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Reed-like perennial from a creeping rhizome; culms 0.6–5 m. high, often robust, scaberulous or occasionally pubescent below the panicle; nodes brown.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 10–45 cm. long, 2–10(–15) mm. wide, hard, glaucous, often convolute, with a filiform tip.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle linear, often elongated, 6–40 cm. long; rhachis cylindrical with rounded ribs, with or without peduncle-stumps, scaberulous or sometimes pubescent; involucre enclosing 1 sessile spikelet, without a distinct stipe at the base; bristles glabrous, the longest 5–20 mm.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets narrowly elliptic to narrowly ovate, 2–6 mm. long, acute to acuminate; lower glume up to 1 mm. long, usually obtuse; upper glume 1/8–1/4 as long as the spikelet, usually acute to acuminate, occasionally obtuse; lower lemma ♂ or barren, 3/4 to as long as the spikelet; upper lemma scarcely differing in texture from the lower.
    Habitat
    River banks and stream beds; 700–2300 m.
    Distribution
    K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1 U3 tropical and South Africa, but rare west of Cameroun
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Culms reed-like; 60-500 cm long. Culm-nodes brown. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades flat, or convolute; 10-45 cm long; 2-10(-15) mm wide; coriaceous; glaucous. Leaf-blade apex filiform.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Peduncle scaberulous above; glabrous, or pubescent above. Panicle spiciform; linear; 6-40 cm long. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with lateral stumps on axis, or with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis with rounded ribs; smooth; glabrous, or pubescent; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; oblong; 5-10 mm long; base obtuse. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; with longest bristle scarcely emergent, or with one conspicuously longer bristle; 5-20 mm long; terete; flexible; glabrous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or ovate; dorsally compressed; cuspidate, or acuminate; 2-6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or ovate; dorsally compressed; cuspidate, or acuminate; 2-6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure, or two; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic, or oblate; 0.5-1 mm long; 0.1-0.15 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 0 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume lanceolate, or oblong; 0.1-0.25 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 0-3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein absent, or distinct. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute, or acuminate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea, or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 0.75-1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5-9 -veined; obtuse, or acute. Fertile lemma ovate; 2-6 mm long; membranous; without keel; 5-7 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous; rough above. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea membranous.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 2-2.5 mm long; anther tip smooth. Styles free to the base, or connate below.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and middle Atlantic ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Reed-like perennial from a creeping rhizome.
    Culms
    Culms 0.6–5 m. high, often robust, rarely-pubescent below the panicle.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae 2–10(15) mm. wide, hard, flat or sometimes convolute.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 6–40 cm. long, linear; rhachis cylindrical with rounded ribs, with or without peduncle stumps, scaberulous or sometimes pubescent; involucre enclosing 1 sessile spikelet without distinct stipe; bristles glabrous, the longest 5–20 mm.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2–6 mm. long.
    Glume
    Inferior glume up to 1 mm. long, the superior 1/8–1/4 length of spikelet.
    Lemma
    Inferior lemma 3/4 to as long as spikelet, acute. Superior lemma similar to the inferior.
    Inferior
    Inferior lemma 3/4 to as long as spikelet, acute.
    Superior
    Superior lemma similar to the inferior.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guinea, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Austria, California, Canary Is., Great Britain, Hawaii, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, St.Helena, Texas

    Synonyms

    Common Names

    English
    Riverbank pennisetum, Riverbed grass

    Other Data

    Cenchrus caudatus (Schrad.) Kuntze appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 1932 Burtt, B.D. [2925], Uganda Pennisetum mildbraedii K000281220
    May 1, 1932 Snowden, J.D. [1458], Uganda Pennisetum mildbraedii K000281221 Unknown type material
    Jun 1, 2001 Ghogue, J.-P. [505], Cameroon Pennisetum macrourum K000107879
    Aug 1, 1976 Schimper [1044], Ethiopia Pennisetum macrourum K000281154 isotype
    Eyles, F. [3083], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281278
    Eyles, F. [4771], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281280 holotype
    Eyles, F. [4771], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281279 holotype
    Eyles, F. [4771], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281281 holotype
    Eyles, F. [4903], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281285 holotype
    Eyles, F. [4903], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281287 holotype
    Eyles, F. [4903], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281284 holotype
    Eyles, F. [4903], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281283 holotype
    Eyles, F. [4903], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281282 holotype
    Eyles, F. [4903], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281286 Unknown type material
    Stolz, A. [1069], Tanzania Pennisetum macrourum K000281204 isotype
    Stolz, A. [1329], Tanzania Pennisetum macrourum K000281203 isotype
    Stolz, A. [1294], Tanzania Pennisetum macrourum K000281207 holotype
    Schimper [93], Ethiopia Pennisetum macrourum K000281156 isosyntype
    Schimper [93], Ethiopia Pennisetum macrourum K000281157 isosyntype
    Schimper [93], Ethiopia Pennisetum macrourum K000281155 isosyntype
    Welwitsch [7426], Angola Pennisetum macrourum K000281276
    Welwitsch [2723], Angola Pennisetum macrourum K000281275 isosyntype
    Welwitsch [2723], Angola Pennisetum macrourum K000281274 isosyntype
    Welwitsch [7507], Angola Pennisetum macrourum K000281277 isotype
    Quartin-Dillon [184], Ethiopia Pennisetum macrourum K000281151
    Fries, R.E. [166], Kenya Pennisetum macrourum K000281208 isosyntype
    Buchanan, J. [172], South Africa Pennisetum macrourum K000281267 holotype
    Haarer, A.E. [2506], Tanzania Pennisetum macrourum K000281205 holotype
    Haarer, A.E. [2506], Tanzania Pennisetum macrourum K000281206 holotype
    Vanderyst, H. [B86], Zaïre Pennisetum macrourum K000281171
    Vanderyst, H. [B86], Zaïre Pennisetum macrourum K000281172
    Vanderyst, H. [5038], Zaire Pennisetum macrourum K000281170
    Vanderyst, H. [5058], Zaïre Pennisetum macrourum K000281169
    Vanderyst, H. [5030], Zaire Pennisetum macrourum K000281168 isosyntype
    Burtt-Davy, J. [2028/29], Malawi Pennisetum macrourum K000281288 holotype
    Leroy, Gabon Pennisetum macrourum K000281167 isotype

    Bibliography

    First published in Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(2): 346 (1898)

    Accepted by

    • von Raab-Straube, E. (ed.) (2005-continuously updated). The Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/query.asp.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Sosef, M.S.M. (2019). Taxonomic novelties in Central African grasses (Poaceae), Paniceae 2 Plant Ecology and Evolution 152: 554-560.
    • Berry, M. (2018). Adventives and aliens news 14 BSBI News 138: 46-51.
    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • von Raab-Straube, E. (ed.) (2005-continuously updated). The Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/query.asp.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Robyns, W. (1934). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 2: 9-386. Goemaere, Bruxelles.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/