1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus caudatus (Schrad.) Kuntze

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa to Arabian Peninsula.

    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Stout perennial up to 5 m. high
    Ecology
    Streambanks.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Reed-like perennial from a creeping rhizome; culms 0.6–5 m. high, often robust, scaberulous or occasionally pubescent below the panicle; nodes brown.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 10–45 cm. long, 2–10(–15) mm. wide, hard, glaucous, often convolute, with a filiform tip.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle linear, often elongated, 6–40 cm. long; rhachis cylindrical with rounded ribs, with or without peduncle-stumps, scaberulous or sometimes pubescent; involucre enclosing 1 sessile spikelet, without a distinct stipe at the base; bristles glabrous, the longest 5–20 mm.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets narrowly elliptic to narrowly ovate, 2–6 mm. long, acute to acuminate; lower glume up to 1 mm. long, usually obtuse; upper glume 1/8–1/4 as long as the spikelet, usually acute to acuminate, occasionally obtuse; lower lemma ♂ or barren, 3/4 to as long as the spikelet; upper lemma scarcely differing in texture from the lower.
    Habitat
    River banks and stream beds; 700–2300 m.
    Distribution
    K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1 U3 tropical and South Africa, but rare west of Cameroun
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Culms reed-like; 60-500 cm long. Culm-nodes brown. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades flat, or convolute; 10-45 cm long; 2-10(-15) mm wide; coriaceous; glaucous. Leaf-blade apex filiform.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Peduncle scaberulous above; glabrous, or pubescent above. Panicle spiciform; linear; 6-40 cm long. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with lateral stumps on axis, or with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis with rounded ribs; smooth; glabrous, or pubescent; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; oblong; 5-10 mm long; base obtuse. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; with longest bristle scarcely emergent, or with one conspicuously longer bristle; 5-20 mm long; terete; flexible; glabrous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or ovate; dorsally compressed; cuspidate, or acuminate; 2-6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic, or ovate; dorsally compressed; cuspidate, or acuminate; 2-6 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure, or two; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic, or oblate; 0.5-1 mm long; 0.1-0.15 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 0 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume lanceolate, or oblong; 0.1-0.25 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 0-3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein absent, or distinct. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute, or acuminate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea, or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 0.75-1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5-9 -veined; obtuse, or acute. Fertile lemma ovate; 2-6 mm long; membranous; without keel; 5-7 -veined. Lemma surface scaberulous; rough above. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea membranous.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 2-2.5 mm long; anther tip smooth. Styles free to the base, or connate below.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and middle Atlantic ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Reed-like perennial from a creeping rhizome.
    Culms
    Culms 0.6–5 m. high, often robust, rarely-pubescent below the panicle.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae 2–10(15) mm. wide, hard, flat or sometimes convolute.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 6–40 cm. long, linear; rhachis cylindrical with rounded ribs, with or without peduncle stumps, scaberulous or sometimes pubescent; involucre enclosing 1 sessile spikelet without distinct stipe; bristles glabrous, the longest 5–20 mm.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2–6 mm. long.
    Glume
    Inferior glume up to 1 mm. long, the superior 1/8–1/4 length of spikelet.
    Lemma
    Inferior lemma 3/4 to as long as spikelet, acute. Superior lemma similar to the inferior.
    Inferior
    Inferior lemma 3/4 to as long as spikelet, acute.
    Superior
    Superior lemma similar to the inferior.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guinea, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Austria, California, Canary Is., Great Britain, Hawaii, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, St.Helena, Texas

    Common Names

    English
    Riverbank pennisetum, Riverbed grass

    Cenchrus caudatus (Schrad.) Kuntze appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2001 Ghogue, J.-P. [505], Cameroon Pennisetum macrourum K000107879
    Aug 1, 1976 Schimper [1044], Ethiopia Pennisetum macrourum K000281154 isotype
    Eyles, F. [3083], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281278
    Eyles, F. [4771], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281280 holotype
    Eyles, F. [4771], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281279 holotype
    Eyles, F. [4771], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281281 holotype
    Eyles, F. [4903], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281285 holotype
    Eyles, F. [4903], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281287 holotype
    Eyles, F. [4903], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281284 holotype
    Eyles, F. [4903], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281283 holotype
    Eyles, F. [4903], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281282 holotype
    Eyles, F. [4903], Zimbabwe Pennisetum macrourum K000281286 Unknown type material
    Stolz, A. [1069], Tanzania Pennisetum macrourum K000281204 isotype
    Stolz, A. [1329], Tanzania Pennisetum macrourum K000281203 isotype
    Stolz, A. [1294], Tanzania Pennisetum macrourum K000281207 holotype
    Schimper [93], Ethiopia Pennisetum macrourum K000281156 isosyntype
    Schimper [93], Ethiopia Pennisetum macrourum K000281157 isosyntype
    Schimper [93], Ethiopia Pennisetum macrourum K000281155 isosyntype
    Welwitsch [7426], Angola Pennisetum macrourum K000281276
    Welwitsch [2723], Angola Pennisetum macrourum K000281275 isosyntype
    Welwitsch [2723], Angola Pennisetum macrourum K000281274 isosyntype
    Welwitsch [7507], Angola Pennisetum macrourum K000281277 isotype
    Quartin-Dillon [184], Ethiopia Pennisetum macrourum K000281151
    Fries, R.E. [166], Kenya Pennisetum macrourum K000281208 isosyntype
    Buchanan, J. [172], South Africa Pennisetum macrourum K000281267 holotype
    Haarer, A.E. [2506], Tanzania Pennisetum macrourum K000281205 holotype
    Haarer, A.E. [2506], Tanzania Pennisetum macrourum K000281206 holotype
    Vanderyst, H. [B86], Zaïre Pennisetum macrourum K000281171
    Vanderyst, H. [B86], Zaïre Pennisetum macrourum K000281172
    Vanderyst, H. [5038], Zaire Pennisetum macrourum K000281170
    Vanderyst, H. [5058], Zaïre Pennisetum macrourum K000281169
    Vanderyst, H. [5030], Zaire Pennisetum macrourum K000281168 isosyntype
    Burtt-Davy, J. [2028/29], Malawi Pennisetum macrourum K000281288 holotype
    Leroy, Gabon Pennisetum macrourum K000281167 isotype

    First published in Revis. Gen. Pl. 3(2): 346 (1898)

    Accepted by

    • von Raab-Straube, E. (ed.) (2005-continuously updated). The Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/query.asp.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Berry, M. (2018). Adventives and aliens news 14 BSBI News 138: 46-51.
    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • von Raab-Straube, E. (ed.) (2005-continuously updated). The Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/query.asp.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Robyns, W. (1934). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 2: 9-386. Goemaere, Bruxelles.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/