1. Family: Rhamnaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Smythea Seem.
      1. Smythea batanensis Cahen & Utteridge

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Philippines (Batan).


    Cahen D & Utteridge T. 2018. A synopsis of the genus Smythea (Rhamnaceae). Kew Bulletin 73: 2. DOI 10.1007/S12225-017-9724-3

    Type: Philippines, Batan Islands, Batanes, Mt Iraya [20°28'N 122°00'E], May 1930, Ramos BS 80170 (holotype K! [K000606763]; isotype K! [K000606764]).
    Climber [habit not recorded but inferred since all other members of Smythea are climbers]
    Indumentum sparse on pedicels and at proximal end of branchlets, dense at distal end of branchlets; hairs subappresed, antrorse, fulvous.
    Branches slender, ascending, terete, smooth, dark reddish-brown, punctuated by small circular black glands; branchlets ridged.
    Stipules fugaceous, linear.
    Leaves: lamina elliptic to wide- elliptic, 1.8 - 6.9 x 1.1 - 3.9 cm, chartaceous-subcoriaceous, apex attenuate to short acuminate, mucronulate, base asymmetric, rounded to broadly cuneate, margins widely crenate-serrate, obscurely near base, serrations topped by callosities; abaxial lamina sparsely hairy along primary vein; primary vein prominent abaxially; secondary veins 3 - 5 pairs, weakly to moderately prominent abaxially, often joining each other directly and forming distinct loops near leaf margin, angle of divergence from primary vein usually 45 - 65°; tertiary veins slightly ascending from primary vein, spaced every c 1 mm; reticulations distinct on either side of lamina; lamina glabrous abaxially except along the primary vein on both sides and along the base of secondary veins; domatia inconspicuous; peti­ole 2 - 7 mm long, sparsely hairy.
    Inflorescence of fascicles in the axils of persistent leaves; flowers unknown.
    Fruit glabrous, except sometimes near base, colour brown, reddish-brown near base, oblong, 3.6 - 6.3 cm long, 0.9 - 1.9 cm wide, slightly twisted near base, apex obtuse-rounded
    Most similar to Smythea beccarii and S. poilanei in having 5 or fewer pairs of well-spaced secondary veins and very sparsely hairy fruit borne in the axils of persistent leaves, but differs by its inconspicuous domatia, having broader, more elliptic leaf blades, and more regularly spaced secondary veins, which often join each other directly, forming distinct loops and diverging from the primary vein at a wider angle.

    Inflorescences of Smythea batanensis were not observed but are assumed to be borne in the axils of persistent leaves because the fruits are in persistent leaf axils. Although the two sheets of Ramos BS 80170 (K!) are marked as sheet Iand sheet II, they are clearly labelled as part 1 of 2 and part 2 of 2 and are thus treated as duplicates.

    Three new species described here — Smythea batanensis, S. beccarii, S. poilanei— form a morpholog­ically similar group having the flower fascicles in axils of persistent leaves, the fruit wing surface very sparsely hairy except sometimes near base, second­ary veins 5 or fewer pairs, weakly to moderately prominent on the abaxial leaf surface and well ­spaced along the primary vein. The spacing of the point of branching of the secondary veins from the primary vein is also useful in these taxa, especially with the secondary veins that arise approximately midway along the primary vein, spaced apart by up to more than a third of total lamina length. Smythea batanensis is recognised by its secondary veins evenly distributed along the primary vein, with an angle of divergence usually greater than 45° and often directly joining each other by forming loops near the leaf margin; further diagnostic characters to identify the new species are given in the Notes to S. beccarii and S. poilanei.

    The description is based on the study of two sheets of a single collection. Leaf characters, especially those of shape, could be variable in this species as these tend to show variability within species of Ventilagineae. However, such a wide angle of divergence of second­ary veins, and the secondary veins so frequently directly joining each other by forming loops near the leaf margin was only observed for those specimens, and not found in all other collections studied, which supports the hypothesis that Smythea batanensis is a distinct species rather than representing specimens at one end of a spectrum of variation. The only other taxa of Smythea found in the Philippines are S. lanceata which has ovate fruits and S. oblongifolia which has flower fascicles in leafless racemes and panicles. Smythea batanensis is the only known recorded Smythea species from Batan Island.

    Named for Batan Island, the only known location where the plant has been collected.

    Only known from Mount Iraya on Batan Island, Philippines.
    Moist broadleaf forest on stratovolcano; alt. unknown.
    Data deficient (DD). IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee Guidelines (2016) state that if data are so uncertain that both Critically Endangered (CR) and Least Concern (LC) are plausible categories, the DD category can be used for a taxon. The only specimen available was collected in 1930 from Batan Island's Mount Iraya and thus meets the B1a criterion for Critically Endangered (CR) status. However, Mount Iraya forests, which seem relatively well preserved on satellite imagery, are located inside an IUCN Category V (Protected Landscape/Seascape) area. In addition, lack of collections and field observa­tions in the Batan Islands area do not allow inference of decline or fluctuation in population size or EOO and AOO.
    Collected in fruit in May.


    Native to:


    Smythea batanensis Cahen & Utteridge appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Kew Bull. 73(1)-2: 6 (2018 publ. 2017)


    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0