1. Family: Rhamnaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Smythea Seem.
      1. Smythea beccarii Cahen & Utteridge

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Sulawesi.

    [KBu]

    Cahen D & Utteridge T. 2018. A synopsis of the genus Smythea (Rhamnaceae). Kew Bulletin 73: 2. DOI 10.1007/S12225-017-9724-3

    Type
    Type: Indonesia, Sulawesi, Kandari [Kendari] [4°3'S 122°32'E], 1874, Beccari s.n. (holotype K! [K000606778], isotypes FI, K! [K000606779]).
    Habit
    Climber to at least 12 m.
    Indumentum
    Indumentum dense at proximal part of the branchlets, all other parts very sparse; hairs appressed-antrorse.
    Branches
    Branches terete, smooth, punctuat­ed by small circular black glands; branchlets ridged.
    Stipules
    Stipules fugaceous, linear.
    Leaves
    Leaves: lamina [narrow-] elliptic to narrow-ovate, 3.9 - 8.8 cm long, 1.0 - 4.0 cm wide, chartaceous-subcoriaceous, apex rounded to short acuminate, mucronulate, base asymmetrical, rounded to cuneate, margins subentire, inconspicuously crenate- serrate, serrations topped by callosities; lamina glabrous on both surfaces; primary vein glabrous except near secondary vein axils, prominent abaxially; secondary veins 3 - 5 pairs, weakly to moderately prominent abaxially, remaining separate near margin or indistinctly connected by secondary vein branches, angle of diver­gence from primary vein usually 35 - 55°; domatia conspicuous, near secondary vein axils, appearing as the abaxial lamina slightly depressed and with hairs dense on surrounding veins; tertiary veins spaced every c 1 mm; reticulations distinct on either side of lamina; petiole 2 - 8 mm long, sparsely hairy.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence fascicles in the axils of persistent leaves; pedicels with minute hairs; calyx lobes triangular, hairy abaxially; calyx lobes adaxially Keeled and with an apical protuberance; petals clawed; nectary disk subpentagonal, sometimes with very short cylindrical papillae, ovary hairy, style arms 2, short.
    Fruits
    Fruits oblong and wing-like to c 6 cm long; apex obtuse- rounded, mucronate, wing slightly twisted near base; hairs dense, whitish, short, antrorse near the base, increasingly sparse towards apex.
    Distribution
    Only known from Sulawesi Tenggara and the easternmost part of Sulawesi Selatan.
    Ecology
    Sulawesi lowland rain forests; alt. 20 - 400 m.
    Conservation
    Endangered EN B2ab(ii,iii). Smythea beccarii is only known from four collections with an AOO of 16 km[4], although this is probably an underestimate. The 5720 km2 EOO would qualify the species for Vulnerable (VU) status, but this EOO is probably not a good indicator of population size given that the polygon includes areas of unsuitable habitat for the taxon, mostly cultivated land or montane rain forests, which are not putative habitats for S. beccarii. However, two of the three localities are within protected areas: Balgooy 5918 and Hennipman 5818 were collected at the edge of Danau Matano Nature Recreation Park (IUCN Category V) and Prawiroatmodjo & Soewoko 1769 within Rawa Aopa Watumohai Nation­al Park (IUCN Category II). Sulawesi still supports some lowland moist forests on steep slopes, but large areas in the south have been cleared for cultivation (Morrison 2001). Therefore, it can be inferred that, apart from within the protected areas, the species has been experiencing a steady decline in the area of its habitat.
    Phenology
    Collected in flower and fruit in June and Nov.
    Note

    Smythea beccarii is named in honour of naturalist Odoardo Beccari (1843 - 1920) who collect­ed the type specimen in 1874.

    Most similar to Smythea batanensis and S. poilanei with respect to the number of secondary veins and the very sparsely hairy fruit borne in the axils of persistent leaves; S. beccarii differs from S. batanensis in its conspicuous domatia and sec­ondary veins remaining separate or indistinctly connected by secondary vein branches but not connecting with each other to form loops near the leaf margin; S. beccarrii differs from S. poilanei with respect to its tertiary vein reticulations that are easily seen on both sides of leaves, and its more numerous secondary veins.

    The only other taxon of Smythea recorded from Sulawesi is the widespread S. lanceata, which is found near the seashore and has ovate fruits well-suited for hydrochory. Smythea beccarii differs in having an oblong wing-shaped fruit and is found in lowland forests. When sterile, all studied specimens of both species look almost identical and their leaves are similar except that in S. lanceata the domatia are pockets, most often combined with tufts of hairs in vein axils, whereas in S. beccarii the domatia are only tufts of hairs in vein axils.

    Smythea beccarii Cahen & Utteridge appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Kew Bull. 73(1)-2: 8 (2018 publ. 2017)

    Sources

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0