1. Family: Rhamnaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Smythea Seem.
      1. Smythea hirtella Cahen & Utteridge

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Borneo (E. Sabah).

    [KBu]

    Cahen D & Utteridge T. 2018. A synopsis of the genus Smythea (Rhamnaceae). Kew Bulletin 73: 2. DOI 10.1007/S12225-017-9724-3

    Type
    Type:Malaysia, Sabah, Lahad Datu, Tabin Wildlife Reserve, 19 June 2000, Madani et al. 145373 (holotype K! [K000271426]; isotype SAN).
    Habit
    Climber to 20 m long.
    Indumentum
    Indumentum dense at distal end of branchlets; hairs subappressed, antrorse, fulvous.
    Branches
    Branches slender, terete, smooth, punctuated by dark circular glands; branchlets ridged.
    Stipules
    Stipules fugaceous, occasionally persistent and seen at fruiting stage, linear, with very minute hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves: blade narrow ovate to oblong, 1.5 - 7.5 cm long, 0.8 - 3.1 cm wide, chartaceous-subcoriaceous, apex attenuate to acuminate, mucronulate, base asymmet­ric, rounded to cuneate, margins widely crenate-serrate, obscurely near base, serrations topped by black callosities; primary vein prominent abaxially, very densely hairy, hairs subappressed, antrorse;secondary veins 4-7 pairs,weakly- moderately prominent abaxially, sparsely hairy, regularly spaced and remaining separate or obscurely connected by secondary vein branches, angle of divergence from primary vein usually 35 -55°; reticulations distinct; lamina glabrous on both surfaces, without conspicuous domatia; petiole 3 - 10 mm long, very densely hairy.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence fascicles in leafless racemes with c 10 flowers in each fascicle; bracts narrowly triangular, 0.6 mm long, pilose; pedicels with relatively sparse spreading hairs; calyx lobes triangular, hairy abaxially, glabrous and keeled adaxially; petals clawed, notched, hairy abaxially; nectary disk subpentagonal, weakly papillose, ovary hairy, style arms 2, short.
    Fruits
    Fruit densely hairy, dark brown, oblong, apex acute when young; mature fruit unknown.
    Note
    Smythea hirtella is unique in Smythea in having both a relatively long petiole (equal to c. 12 % of total leaf length), and very densely hairy primary vein on the abaxial side. It is most similar to S. oblongifolia in having flower fascicles borne in leafless racemes and hairy, basally twisted fruit wings, but differs in the aforementioned characters and its glabrous abaxial lamina at secondary vein axils.

    Neither mature flowers nor fruit were available for study, however, fruit were mature enough to observe a basally twisted oblong wing with a flattened seed chamber, indicating that Smythea hirtella is a member of the genus Smythea. The only other taxa of Smythea found in Sabah are S. lanceata, S. macrocarpa and S. oblongifolia. Smythea hirtella differs from both S. lanceata and S. macrocarpa in the flower fascicles being borne in leafless racemes, and from S. oblongifolia in the very densely hairy primary vein, in its weakly to moderately prominent secondary veins, and the absence of conspicuous domatia.

    The specific epithet refers to the abaxially very densely hairy primary vein and very densely hairy petiole. The diminutive suffix -ella refers to the relatively small leaves, 1.5 - 7.5 cm long and 0.8 - 3.1 cm wide.

    Distribution
    Endemic to Borneo, currently known only in the east of Sabah.
    Ecology
    Borneo lowland rain forests; alt. 100 - 500 m.
    Conservation
    Endangered EN B1ab(iii). The taxon is only known from four localities within an EOO of 3000 km2. Bornean lowland rain forests have been experiencing severe fragmentation and conversion (Loucks 2001). Only Madani et al. SAN 145373 is known to have been collected inside a protected area: Tabin Wildlife Reserve (IUCN Category IV).
    Phenology
    Collected in flower in April, Aug. and Oct.; collected in fruit in June.

    Distribution

    Smythea hirtella Cahen & Utteridge appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Kew Bull. 73(1)-2: 12 (2018 publ. 2017)

    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0