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This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe, Medit. to Iran.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Plants 15–60 cm tall, usually unbranched below, with numerous thick, fleshy soboles from the underground rhizome
Morphology Stem
Stems sparsely strigose or short-villous to nearly glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves ovate, 2.5–11 × 1.5–6.5 cm, truncate to slightly cordate at base, long-acuminate at apex, sparsely and shallowly denticulate; petioles 1–5 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence glandular-pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels 4–8 mm in fruit, reflexed at maturity
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Hypanthium
Hypanthium slender, 1–1.2 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 2–4.5 × 1–3 mm, muriculate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals cuneate, 2–4 × 2.2–5 mm, notched for about one-half their length
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments 2.5–5.5 mm; anthers 0.4–0.8 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 4–6.7 mm; stigma deeply 2-lobed, white to reddish, held above and away from the spreading anthers at anthesis; disc present, 0.2‒0.4 mm high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 3–4 × 2–2.5 mm, 2-locular, tapering at base, smooth to slightly rugose, densely covered with white hooked hairs 0.7–1.1 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2–3 mm.
Ecology
Woodland.
Distribution
Throughout Europe, Syria, Turkey, Iran, the Caucasus and eastward in Siberia. Although this specimen may not be from within the limits of Iraq, the species is to be expected elsewhere along the mountainous regions of the Iranian and Turkish borderland.

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Yugoslavia

Circaea lutetiana L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Cope, T.A. [RBG 165], Great Britain K000914241
Cope, T.A. [RBG 165], Great Britain K000914242

First published in Sp. Pl.: 9 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Malyschev, L.I., Peshkova, G.A. & Baikov, K.S. (eds.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 14: 1-210. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Raven, P.H. (1964). Flora Iranica 7: 1-19. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Chamberlain & Raven in Davis, Fl. Turk. 4: 181 (1972).
  • Zohary, Fl. Palest. ed. 2, 1: 476 (1932)
  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 753 (1872);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 12 (1753);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

Flora of Iraq
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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