1. Family: Onagraceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Epilobium Dill. ex L.
      1. Epilobium hirsutum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Eurasia to Africa.

    [FZ]

    Onagraceae, P. H. Raven. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Robust herb, 0·2–2·5 m. tall, the subligneous stems sometimes persistent; rhizome stout, producing thick white underground runners with very scattered cataphylls; plants more or less white-pubescent, densely covered, especially in the inflorescence, with long spreading trichomes.
    Leaves
    Leaves 2–12 × 0·5–4 cm., mostly opposite, alternate above, oblong-lanceolate, densely hairy, acute, sessile, clasping at the base, coarsely toothed; rosette leaves longer and less hairy than later leaves; young leaves to 20 cm. long, more glabrous; petiole up to 5 cm.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence with an admixture of glandular trichomes, erect in bud; flowers erect in bud.
    Flowers
    Floral tube 2·5–3 mm. across, c. 1–1·5 mm. deep.
    Calyx
    Sepals 6–10× 2–2·5 mm., apiculate.
    Corolla
    Petals 6–16 × 6–15 mm., deeply notched, bright purplish-rose.
    Stamens
    Anthers 1·5–2 mm. long; the filaments of the longer 3·5–6 mm. long, of the shorter 2–3 mm. long.
    Style
    Styles 6–10 mm. long; stigma deeply 4-lobed, held above the anthers at anthesis, lobes 1·5–2·5 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsules 3–8 mm. long, densely villous, on pedicels 2–12 mm. long; seeds 0·9–1·15 mm. long, dark brown or even coppery, oblong-obovoid, acute at the base, coarsely papillose, the coma 5–7 mm., dull white.
    Cytology
    Chromosome number n=18.
    [FTEA]

    Onagraceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1953

    Habit
    Rhizomatous, usually robust herb up to 2.1 m. high, indumentum ranging from pubescent and very sparsely villous to densely villous or tomentose; capitate glandular hairs present.
    Stem
    Stems without imbricate scale-leaves at base.
    Leaves
    Leaves sessile, variable, oblong or lanceolate to elliptic or sometimes ovate-elliptic or obovate-oblong, about 3–10 cm. long and 0.5–2.5 (-3.7) cm. wide, acute, sharply serrulate.
    Flowers
    Flowers bright pink to red-purple, rarely and only casually white.
    Calyx
    Sepals 7–10 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Petals broadly obovate, 9.5–19 mm. long, 7–18 mm. wide.
    Style
    Style 7–8 mm. long.
    Stigma
    Stigma divided nearly or quite to base into four arcuate-recurved narrowly clavate obtuse arms 1.75–3 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsules mostly 4–8.5 cm. long; pedicels 0.5–1.6 (–2) cm. long.
    Distribution
    Similar to that of var. villosissimum. E. hirsutum, in a wide sense, recorded as naturalized in Canada and the United States

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Angola, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Burundi, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Manchuria, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Qinghai, Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Colorado, Finland, Illinois, New York, Norway, Vermont

    Epilobium hirsutum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1980 Giles [533], Pakistan K000913977
    Jan 1, 1980 Wallich, N. [6325], Indian Subcontinent K000913976 holotype
    Hubbard, C.E. [12314], United Kingdom K000742629
    unknown [49], South Africa K000311156
    Schimper [1065], Ethiopia K000311153
    Schimper [124], Ethiopia K000311154
    K000310893
    K000310894
    Ecklon [272] K000310931
    Baur, R. [847] K000310930
    Bowher [s.n.], South Africa K000310932
    Quartin - Dillon [43], Ethiopia K000311155
    Schimper, G.H.W. [1496], Ethiopia K000310895
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 146], Great Britain K000914228
    Mizyakin [s.n.], Kyrgyzstan K000812821
    Korovina, O.N. [s.n.], Uzbekistan K000812823
    Cowan. R.S. [MFF115], United Kingdom K000696462

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 347 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-181. BRIT Press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Lee, S. & al. (2013). Taxonomic studies of tribe Epilobieae ndl. (Onagraceae) in Korea based on morphology and seed microstructure Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 43: 208-222.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
    • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
    • Sekar, K.C. & Srivastava, S.K. (2009). Additions to the flora of Lahaul-Spiti from Pin valley national park Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 22-25.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Taton, A. (1967). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Onagraceae: 1-25. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-181. BRIT Press.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
    • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
    • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hausskn., Monogr. Epilobium 53 (1884).
    • L., Sp. Pl. 347 (1753), excl. var. ? (=E. parviflorum (Schreb.) Schreb.).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0