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This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Europe, Medit. to Central Asia and W. Himalaya.
Epilobium tetragonum

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Vegetative Multiplication Rhizomes
Rhizome stout
Morphology Stem
Stems 10–75 cm tall, strigose, sometimes densely so, especially above, or glabrescent, with weakly elevated lines decurrent from the margins of the petioles
Morphology Leaves
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 2–8 × 0.5–2 cm, serrulate, subsessile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence usually white-canescent, rarely glabrescent, suberect before anthesis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 2.5–4 cm; petals very pale pink
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma clavate, surrounded by the anthers at anthesis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 3.5–6 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds obovoid, brown, papillate, ± 1 mm, with a very short pellucid beak at the chalazal end.
Ecology
Mountain slopes; alt. 1400–1700 m
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: Jun.-Aug.
Distribution
Lebanon, Turkey, Iran, Caucasus, Central Asia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, and NW Himalaya to Kumaon. Rare, in upper forest zone of Iraq, near Turkish and Iranian frontiers.

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Altay, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Finland, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Assam, Chile Central, Chile South, Crozet Is., Kerguelen, New Zealand North, Norway, Western Australia

Epilobium tetragonum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Cope, T.A. [RBG 212], Great Britain K000914232
Sheahan, M.C. [MCS062], United Kingdom K000696768

First published in Sp. Pl.: 348 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
  • George, A.S. (ed.) (1990). Flora of Australia 18: 1-349. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
  • Hocj, P.C. & Raven, P.H. (1981). Flora of Pakistan 139: 1-44. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Malyschev, L.I., Peshkova, G.A. & Baikov, K.S. (eds.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 14: 1-210. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Ovchinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1981). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 6: 1-725. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Raven, P.H. (1964). Flora Iranica 7: 1-19. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Chamberlain & Raven in Davis, Fl. Turk. 4: 189. 1972;
  • Hausskn. in Österr. Bot. Zeit., 29: 55 (1879);
  • Nábělek in Publ. Fac. Sc. Univ. Masaryk, 35: 115 (1923);
  • Raven & Hoch in Nasir & Ali, Fl. Pak. 139: 18 (1981).
  • Raven in Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 7: 9. 1964;
  • Raven in Tutin et al., Fl. Europaea 2: 310. 1968;
  • Raven, Bothalia 9: 318. 1967;
  • Zohary in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull., 31: 108 (1950);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
  • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
  • George, A.S. (ed.) (1990). Flora of Australia 18: 1-349. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Hocj, P.C. & Raven, P.H. (1981). Flora of Pakistan 139: 1-44. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Mao, A.A., Sinha, B.K., Verma, D. & Sarma, N. (2016). Check-List of Flora of Meghalaya: 1-273. Meghalaya Biodiversity Board, Shillong.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Ovchinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1981). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 6: 1-725. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.

Flora of Iraq
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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