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This species is accepted, and its native range is Eurasia, NW. Africa.
Trapa natans L.

[FTEA]

Trapaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1953

Morphology General Habit
Annual.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with lamina often broader than long, 1.5–4.5 cm. long, 1.5–7 cm. wide, toothed in upper part, glabrous above, beneath varying from almost glabrous to densely hairy all over.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals about 4–7 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals obovate-oblong to obovate, about 8–16 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit very variably 2–4-horned.
Distribution
A very wide discontinuous range through Europe, Asia and Africa (north Africa to Natal)naturalized in northern America and Australiamore widespread in Tertiary times than to-day

[FZ]

Trapaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Annual.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with lamina often broader than long, 1·5–5 cm. × 1·5–8 cm., toothed in upper part, glabrous above, beneath varying from almost glabrous to densely hairy all over.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals about 4–7 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals obovate-oblong to obovate, about 8–16 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit very variably 2–4-horned.

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Assam, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Buryatiya, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Congo, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Greece, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Malawi, Manchuria, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northwest European R, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Primorye, Romania, South European Russi, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Extinct in:

Spain, Sweden

Introduced into:

New York, Vermont

English
Devil-faced fruit, Water calthrop, Water chestnut, Water nut

Trapa natans L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jun 1, 2013 Niyomdham [5275], Thailand K001045712
May 8, 1997 Fiori, A. [471], Italy K000742715 neotype
Buckley, J.C., India 16118.000

First published in Sp. Pl.: 120 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Ding, B. & Jin, X. (2020). Taxonomic notes on genus Trapa L. (Trapaceae) in China Guihaia 40: 1-15.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Hadinec, J. & Lustyk, P. (2017). Additamenta ad floram Reipublicae Bohemicae. XV. Zprávy Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 52: 37-113.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2010). New floristic records in the Balkans: 13 Phytologia Balcanica 16: 143-165.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Brenan in F.T.E.A. Trapac. (1953).
  • Hegi Ill. Fl. Mitteleuropa 5, 2: 884 (1925)
  • Sp. Pl. 120 (1753)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Aedo, C. & al. (2014). https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/njb.00575 epublication.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Charkevicz, S.S. (ed.) (1995). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 7: 1-394. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Ding, B. & Jin, X. (2020). Taxonomic notes on genus Trapa L. (Trapaceae) in China Guihaia 40: 1-15.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Santisuk, T. & Balslev, H. (eds.) (2014). Flora of Thailand 11(4): 499-666. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) (1955-1958). Flora Malesiana 5: 1-595. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2010). New floristic records in the Balkans: 13 Phytologia Balcanica 16: 143-165.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Hegi, Ill. Fl. Mitteleuropa 5 (2): 884 (1925).
  • L., Sp. Pl. 120 (1753).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/