1. Family: Lythraceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Trapa L.
      1. Trapa natans L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eurasia, NW. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Trapaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1953

    Habit
    Annual.
    Leaves
    Leaves with lamina often broader than long, 1.5–4.5 cm. long, 1.5–7 cm. wide, toothed in upper part, glabrous above, beneath varying from almost glabrous to densely hairy all over.
    Calyx
    Sepals about 4–7 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Petals obovate-oblong to obovate, about 8–16 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit very variably 2–4-horned.
    Distribution
    A very wide discontinuous range through Europe, Asia and Africa (north Africa to Natal)naturalized in northern America and Australiamore widespread in Tertiary times than to-day
    [FZ]

    Trapaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Annual.
    Leaves
    Leaves with lamina often broader than long, 1·5–5 cm. × 1·5–8 cm., toothed in upper part, glabrous above, beneath varying from almost glabrous to densely hairy all over.
    Calyx
    Sepals about 4–7 cm. long.
    Corolla
    Petals obovate-oblong to obovate, about 8–16 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit very variably 2–4-horned.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Cambodia, Central European Rus, Chita, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Myanmar, Northwest European R, Poland, Primorye, Romania, South European Russi, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, West Siberia, Yugoslavia

    Extinct in:

    Sweden

    Introduced into:

    Vermont

    Common Names

    English
    Devil-faced fruit, Water calthrop, Water chestnut, Water nut

    Trapa natans L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 8, 1997 Fiori, A. [471], Italy K000742715 neotype
    Buckley, J.C., India 16118.000
    Jun 1, 1960 Hooker, J.D. [s.n.], Bangladesh Trapa quadrispinosa K000742713
    Jun 1, 1960 Stewart, R.R. [3351/2] Trapa quadrispinosa K000742711 lectotype
    Wight, R. [6340], Nepal Trapa quadrispinosa K000742712
    Wallich, N. [s.n.], Nepal Trapa quadrispinosa K000742714
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6340], Nepal Trapa quadrispinosa K001123628
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6340] Trapa quadrispinosa K001123629

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 120 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Hadinec, J. & Lustyk, P. (2017). Additamenta ad floram Reipublicae Bohemicae. XV. Zprávy Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 52: 37-113.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2010). New floristic records in the Balkans: 13 Phytologia Balcanica 16: 143-165.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Brenan in F.T.E.A. Trapac. (1953).
    • Hegi Ill. Fl. Mitteleuropa 5, 2: 884 (1925)
    • Sp. Pl. 120 (1753)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Santisuk, T. & Balslev, H. (eds.) (2014). Flora of Thailand 11(4): 499-666. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
    • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2010). New floristic records in the Balkans: 13 Phytologia Balcanica 16: 143-165.
    • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Charkevicz, S.S. (ed.) (1995). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 7: 1-394. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hegi, Ill. Fl. Mitteleuropa 5 (2): 884 (1925).
    • L., Sp. Pl. 120 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/