1. Family: Orchidaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Anacamptis Rich.
      1. Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) Rich.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe, Medit. to N. Iran.

    [O-EM]
    Biology

    In late autumn, the daughter's tubers develop small shoots that form a new rosette of leaves from which leaves and a flower spike will rise in the spring. The period of bloom is from full spring to the early summer; the autogamous flowers are visited and pollinated by many different insects. In the southern-most part of the distribution area (e.g. on Cyprus), blossoming plants were observed near sea level at the end of February, whereas very far to the north (e.g. in Ireland) or in alpine biotopes, the plants blossom until August. One month after flowering the maturation of the seeds starts and the percentage of flowers setting seed is normally very high.

    Distribution

    This species settles from sea level to heights of more than 2,300 m. The vast distribution area reaches from North Africa through western and Central Europe along the Atlantic coast to the Hebrides and northern outposts exist on some Baltic islands. To the east, it is extremely likely that the influence of the increasing continental climate has prevented further propagation. To the south-east it remains close to the coasts of the Levant, while it reaches the Caucasians south of the Caspian Sea via the high mountains of northern Turkey.

    Ecology

    In Central Europe the species settles in open sunny areas on soil rich in bases, with a predilection to mountainous and extensive high valley meadows. In Southern Europe it is often found in coastal regions especially in areas of degenerated shrub, such as phrygana, but especially in tall thorn shrubs. It has revealed an astonishing ecological width and adaptation, for example in Ireland, it settles in small mossy areas of coastal dunes and damp places that originate from watercourses that formed the dunes. Within these rather hostile-to-life biotopes it appears in a dwarfish form; even similar high alpine adaptations are also noteworthy.

    General Description

    Fully flowered plants can grow to 50 cm tall and have up to 12 strap-shaped, keeled leaves with pointed tips that are bunched closer to the ground. The plants have two small ovoid tubers. The epithet pyramidalis characterises only the newly blossoming inflorescence in contrast to the later stages, when the blossom is less conical and more oval and domed. The flowers have a very long and thin spur that is tapering towards its end; however, there are local colonies that have relatively short spurs. The lip, ends as a rule, as three pointed and elongated lobes. At the base of the lip are two upright calluses (ridges) found, either side of the spur entrance. The top sepal and petals form a helmet like hood over the column, the lateral sepals extend sideways horizontally and are a little bigger than the top sepal. As a rule, the colour of the flowers is vividly pink to carmine, however the colour is also highly variable. The two pollinaria have a common viscidium.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belgium, Bulgaria, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Yugoslavia

    Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) Rich. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2011 Day, C.D. [629], Turkey K000341570
    Malta 20420.000
    United Kingdom 20742.000
    210.000
    70689.000
    76409.000
    Verdcourt, B. [4559], France 31700.000
    Summerhayes, V.S. [1592], United Kingdom 207.000
    Hubbard, C.E., United Kingdom 20744.000
    Sandeman, C. [4], France 208.000
    Harley, R.M., Greece 24814.000
    Chase [14201a] 70554.000
    Chase [16360] 71733.000
    Messel, Italy 19443.000
    Howell, W., United Kingdom 20419.000
    de Aguilar, A., Spain 206.000
    Green, M.L., United Kingdom 20745.000
    Scullan, J.J., Ireland 209.000
    Suart, J.B. [A5], Cyprus 26214.000
    Wood, J.J. [153], Greece 38925.000
    Wood, J.J. [213], Italy 38949.000
    Wood, J.J. [264], Greece 39348.000
    Wood, J.J. [507], France 45910.000
    Wood, J.J. [775], Cyprus 49268.000
    Payne, T.H., United Kingdom 26332.011
    Hooper, S., Greece 7149.000
    Adams, L.G. [237], United Kingdom 28327.000
    Barneby, T.P., France 31654.000
    Blamey, P. [10], Spain 38321.000
    Blamey, P. [1], Spain 38323.000
    Emanuel, D., Malta 39418.000
    Joseph, J. [377], Spain 48815.000
    Clements, M.A. [2586], Greece 47453.000
    Clements, M.A. [2703], Italy 47691.000
    Albury, S.D. [A. C & W 123], Turkey 50665.000
    Albury, Turkey 47428.000
    Italy K000364041
    Trevelyan, W.C. [s.n.], Portugal K000364040
    Amini [6902] 73600.000
    Prescott [s.n.] K000364039
    Lang, A.F. [s.n.] K000364042
    Fay, M.F. [MFF 258] K000364646
    Edgar, G.H. [1005], Great Britain K000718734

    First published in De Orchid. Eur.: 33 (1817)

    Accepted by

    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Vázquez Pardo, F.M. (2009). Revisión de la familia Orchidaceae en Extremadura (España) Folia Botanica Extremadurensis 3: 1-367.
    • Dogignard, A. (2009). Contributions à la connaissance de la flore du Maroc et de l'Afrique du Nord. Nouvelle série. 2. La flore du Nord-Maroc Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 46-47: 1-136.
    • Curtis, T. & Thompson, R. (2009). The orchids of Ireland: 1-160. National Museums of Northern Ireland, Cultra, Holywood.
    • G.I.R.O.S. (2009). Orchidee d'Italia: 1-303. Il Castello srl, Italy.
    • Kretzschmar, H. ,Eccarius, W. & Dietrich, H. (2007). The Orchid Genera Anacamptis, Orchis and Neotinea. Phylogeny, taxonomy, morphology, biology, distribution, ecology and hybridisation, ed. 2: 1-544. EchinoMedia verlag, Bürgel.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2005). Flora Iberica 21: 1-366. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    Orchideae: e-monocot.org
    • Kretzschmar, H., Eccarius, W. & Dietrich, H. The orchid genera Anacamptis, Orchis and Neotinea: phylogeny, taxonomy, morphology, biology, distribution, ecology and hybridisation. (EchinoMedia: 2007).

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Orchideae: e-monocot.org
    All Rights Reserved