1. Family: Orchidaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Calanthe R.Br.
      1. Calanthe sylvatica (Thouars) Lindl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean.

    [FTEA]

    Orchidaceae, V. S. Summerhayes. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    A large erect terrestrial herb up to 65 cm. tall.
    Pseudobulbs
    Pseudobulbs erect or suberect, cylindrical-conical, 4–5-noded, 2–5 cm. long, up to 1.2 cm. diameter, obvious only after leaves have rotted.
    Leaves
    Leaves 3–5, almost in a rosette, suberect or spreading, lanceolate to elliptic-oblong, acute or acuminate, 15–45 cm. long, 5–13 cm. broad, glossy dark green above, ± pubescent beneath; petiole sulcate, 4–25 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence erect, few–many-flowered, up to 60 cm. or so long; peduncle stout, pubescent; rhachis pubescent; bracts lanceolate, acute or acuminate, suberect to recurved, 1–3 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers large, showy, white to rose-purple with a darker lip; callus white to orange; column white.
    Calyx
    Dorsal sepal lanceolate to narrowly elliptic or oblong- elliptic, acute, 1.3–3.5 cm. long, 0.4–1.2 cm. broad; lateral sepals similar but oblique.
    Corolla
    Petals elliptic to oblanceolate, acute or obtuse, 1–3 cm. long.
    Labellum
    Lip 3-lobed, adnate at base to column, 1.2–2.5 cm. long, 0.8–2 cm. broad, spurred at base; side lobes ± auriculate, 0.5–7 cm. long; midlobe much larger, flabellate to obovate, emarginate; callus verrucose, of 3 ridges of which the central one is longest. Callus fleshy, 3–7 mm. long.
    Spur
    Spur pendent, sigmoid or incurved, 1–4 cm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 59.
    Habitat
    In upland forest in East Africa, but in lower altitude rain-forest elsewhere; 900–2750 m.
    Distribution
    K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T6 T7 U2 U3 U4 widespread in tropical Africa from Sierra Leone across to Zaire and south to Cape Province of South Africaalso in Madagascar, the Mascarene Is. and possibly tropical Asia
    [FZ]

    Orchidaceae, I. la Croix and P.J. Cribb. Flora Zambesiaca 11:1. 1995

    Habit
    Large terrestrial herb up to 70 cm tall.
    Pseudobulbs
    Pseudobulbs rather obscure, 2–5 × 1.5 cm, conical, with 4–5 nodes.
    Leaves
    Leaves 3–5 ± rosulate, suberect to spreading; leaf up to 35 × 12 cm, lanceolate, acute, plicate, dark green; petiole 5–25 cm long.
    Inflorescences
    Peduncle slightly pubescent with 2 sheath-like leaves; inflorescence densely several- to many-flowered.
    Flowers
    Flowers white or purple with orange callus.
    Pedicel and Ovary
    Pedicel and ovary each 10–15 mm long.
    Bracts
    Bracts 1–3 cm long.
    Calyx
    Sepals 9–37 × 4–14 mm, lanceolate, acute, the lateral sepals usually slightly longer than the dorsal ones and oblique.
    Corolla
    Petals 8–25 × 4–14 mm, elliptic or oblanceolate.
    Labellum
    Lip 3-lobed at the base, 11–15 × 6–25 mm, with 3 ridges at the base. Side lobes auriculate or crescent-shaped, 5–7 mm long; mid-lobe flabellate to obovate, emarginate, sometimes with a small tooth in the sinus.
    Spur
    Spur slender, straight or sigmoid, 1–4 cm long.
    [FWTA]

    Orchidaceae, V. S. Summerhayes. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Ecology
    Terrestrial, in forests.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Comoros, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Réunion, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Calanthe sylvatica (Thouars) Lindl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 1, 2009 Diwol [141829], Sabah K000395566
    May 15, 2008 Cribb, P. [10610], Tanzania 25694.248
    May 15, 2008 Milliken, W. [1128], Sulawesi 73093.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Milne-Redhead, E. [4093], Angola 9685.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Wild, H. [SRGH 26910], Zimbabwe 29654.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Drummond, R.B. [1885], Tanzania 18286.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Drummond, R.B. [1638], Tanzania 18291.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Troupin, G. [3157], Congo, DRC 30898.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Copley, H. [18], Kenya 19209.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Copley, H. [18A], Kenya 20270.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Bally, P.R.O. [7873], Kenya 20269.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Moreau [266], Tanzania 30856.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Polhill, R. [1815], Tanzania 23399.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Polhill, R. [1815], Tanzania 25129.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Fanshawe, D.B. [4406], Zimbabwe 30850.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Morze, G. [158A], Zambia 30089.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Morze, G. [158B], Zambia 30102.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Cribb, P. [11468], Tanzania 40256.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Cribb, P. [10641], Tanzania 40315.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Cribb, P. [11486], Tanzania 41003.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Cribb, P. [11032], Tanzania 41057.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Cribb, P. [11174], Tanzania 41074.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Cribb, P. [11032], Tanzania 41077.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Heppe, F.N., Tanzania 34370.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Leedal, G.P. [4932], Tanzania 40302.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Tanner, L. [78], Tanzania 41059.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Cribbe, P. [10706], Tanzania 41082.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Papua New Guinea 25694.233
    Jan 1, 2008 Zimbabwe 29532.000
    Jan 1, 2008 Kenya 7420.000
    Oct 9, 2007 Kerr, A.F.G. [070], Thailand K000597161
    Madagascar 25174.000
    Reunion 26157.000
    Borneo 50691.000
    Tanzania 51010.000
    Mauritius 600.000
    Madagascar 61030.000
    Richards, H.M. [10601], Malawi 3062.000
    Maitland, T.D. [1785], Cameroon K000106778
    Morze, G. [111], Zimbabwe 30098.000
    Lamb, A. [AL 85/83], Malaysia 48199.000
    Du Puy, B. [MB156], Madagascar 64397.000
    Beentje, H.J. [4413], Madagascar 58362.000
    Humbert, H. [23307], Madagascar K000718456
    Johnston, H.H. [107], Cameroon K000106777
    Chase, M.W. [23324], Réunion 77715.000
    Sander, F. [s.n.], Tanzania K000242421
    Preuss, P.R. [1061], Cameroon K000106775 Unknown type material
    Ong, P.T. [FRI 64204], Peninsular Malaysia K000718104
    Daramola, B. O. [FHI 41063], Cameroon K000106776
    Stolz, A. [671], Malawi Calanthe corymbosa K000242425
    Holmes [8], Zambia Calanthe corymbosa 77396.000
    Bridson, D. [476], Rwanda Calanthe corymbosa 43772.000
    Cribb, P. [10308], Tanzania Calanthe volkensii 40305.000
    Tanzania Calanthe stolzii 41058.000
    Stolz, A. [3], Malawi Calanthe stolzii K000242422 Unknown type material
    Stolz, A. [3], Malawi Calanthe stolzii K000242423

    First published in Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 250 (1833)

    Accepted by

    • Velayos, M. & al. (eds.) (2018). Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial 10: 1-491. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Real jardín botánico, Madrid.
    • Averyanov, L.V. & al. (2018). New and rare orchid species (Orchidaceae) in the flora of Cambodia and Laos Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii 49: 24-41.
    • Averyanov, L.V. & al. (2016). New and rare orchids (Orchidaceae) in the flora of Cambodia and Laos Turczaninowia 19: 5-58.
    • Johnson, S. & Bytebier, B. (2015). Orchids of South Africa. A field guide: 1-536. Struik nature, Cape Town, South Africa.
    • Szlachetko, D.L. & Mytnik-Ejsmont, J. (2015). Orchidaceae of West-Central Africa 2: 1-300. Koeltz Scientific books, Koenigsheim, Germany.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Clayton, D. & Cribb, P. (2013). The Genus Calanthe: 1-411. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
    • Liltved, W.R. & Johnson, S.D. (2012). The Cape orchids. A regional monograph of the orchids of the Cape floristic region 2: 485-1022. Sandstone editions, Cape Town.
    • Kurzweil, H. (2010). A precursory study of the Calanthe group (Orchidaceae) in Thailand Adansonia, III, 32: 57-107.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Bernet, P. (2010). Orchidées de la Réunion: 1-368. Naturae Amici éditions.
    • Wu, Z. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2009). Flora of China 25: 1-570. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Cribb, P., Hermans, J. & Rakotoarinivo, M. (2009). Field Guide to the Orchids of Madagascar: 1-456. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Raskoti, B.B. (2009). The Orchids of Nepal: 1-252. Bhakta Bahadur Raskoti and Rita Ale.
    • Szlachetko, D. & Kowalkoska, A. (2007). Contributions to the orchid flora of Guinea, West Africa Polish Botanical Studies 25: 1-259.
    • Lucksom, S.Z. (2007). The orchids of Sikkim and North East Himalaya: 1-984. S.Z.Lucksom, India.
    • Sittisujjatham, S. (2006). Wild Orchid of Thailand 1: 1-495. Amarin.
    • Szlachetko, D.L. & al. (2004). Flore du Gabon 36: 1-231. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Ormerod, P. & Kumar, C.S. (2003). Orchidaceous additions to the Flora of Burma (Myanmar) Rheedea 13: 43-50.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Szlachetko, D. & Kowalkoska, A. (2007). Contributions to the orchid flora of Guinea, West Africa Polish Botanical Studies 25: 1-259.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Perrier in Fl. Madag., Orch. 1: 298 (1939).
    • Schltr. in F. Fedde, Repertorium Speciorum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis, Beih. 33: 165 (1933).
    • Reichb. f. in Walpers, Ann. Bot. 6: 914 (1864).
    • Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.: 250 (1833).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0