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  1. Family: Orchidaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Ophrys L.
      1. Ophrys fusca Link

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Medit.


    Throughout the Mediterranean and along the French Atlantic coast north to Brittany. [Aeg, Alb, Bal, Cor, Cre, Fra, Gre, Ita, Mal, Por, Sar, Sic, Spa, Tur, Yug; Ana, Cyp, Isr, Mor, Tun]

    General Description

    Plant compact to slender, (5-)7-40(-70) cm tall with 1-10(-11) flowers in a lax to dense spike. Sepals (pale) green to yellowish green, olive-green or white, ovate to elliptic, 7-18 × 3-10 mm; dorsal sepal more or less boatshaped, incurved, from the base nearly parallel to the column. Petals (yellowish) green (to yellow), often suffused with red or brown, narrowly oblong to linear-oblong with (almost) flat margins, 4-12 × 1-4 mm, glabrous, spreading to moderately incurved. Lip with (purplish) brown (to purplish black) ground colour and sometimes a yellow or yellowish green margin, straight (to gradually downcurved) or with a knee-like bend at the base and always with recurved margins, distinctly longitudinally furrowed at base, three-lobed around the middle or closer to the apex, 7-26 × 5-21 mm, velvety (especially towards the margin); bulges absent; mid-lobe distinctly longer than the side lobes, emarginate (to rounded); mirror distinct to somewhat obscure, consisting of a figure shaped more or less like the tail of a fish (sometimes longitudinally split) and extending from the base of the lip to above the middle, dull grey to (occasionally shining) blue or dull violet to reddish brown (rarely marbled), often more strongly coloured in front. Column rounded, not tapering towards the base (in side view); stigmatic cavity wider than long and approximately twice as wide as the anther, devoid of lateral eye-like knobs at base.


    Dry to moist, occasionally wet, soil in full sunlight to light shade from sea level to 1500 m altitude. Typical habitats include roadside verges, garrigue, maquis, pesticide-free olive-groves and grassland as well as lightopen pine and oak woods.



    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Baleares, Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., France, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia

    Accepted Infraspecifics


    Other Data

    Ophrys fusca Link appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Italy 161.000
    France 164.000
    Greece 20749.000
    Brenan, J.P.M. [11121], Greece 40226.000
    Davis, P. [25168], Turkey 163.000
    Chase [16367] 71749.000
    Watson, J.M. [7], Greece 165.000
    Watson, J.M. [23], Turkey 166.000
    Watson, J.M. [5], Greece 2987.000
    Watson, J.M. [6], Greece 2988.000
    Kennedy, E.W. [1514], Cyprus 162.000
    Whiting, M.M. [1], Malta 20386.000
    Whiting, M.M. [5], Malta 5814.000
    Syngrassides, A. [1417], Cyprus 5808.000
    Syngrassides, A. [1430], Cyprus 5812.000
    Palmer, L. 5809.000
    Trethewy, H.W. [239-241], Morocco 20388.000
    Terry, H., France 20389.000
    Russell, J. [5], Portugal 20750.000
    Russell, J. [2], Portugal 5815.000
    Chesterman, D.D. [30], Italy 39136.000
    Chesterman, D.D. [59], Cyprus 39513.000
    Banks, C., Italy 26533.000
    Cumberlege [1501], Greece 27656.000
    Suart, J.B. [A1], Cyprus 24001.000
    Wood, J.J. [184], Greece 39027.000
    Wood, J.J. [68], Cyprus 39113.000
    Wood, J.J. [253], Greece 39485.000
    Wood, J.J. [426], Italy 43672.000
    Banks, C., Israel 27842.000
    Collins, P.B. [74/0009], Portugal 41279.000
    Collins, P.B. [74/0016], Portugal 41281.000
    Collins, P.B. [75/0004], Italy 41294.000
    Blamey, P. [8], Spain 38330.000
    Griveau, C., France 70692.000
    Nicolaide, G., Cyprus 5811.000
    CPCF [CPCF 463a-b] 70488.000
    CPCF [CPCF 462] 70489.000
    CPCF [CPCF 471] 70491.000
    CPCF [CPCF 474] 70403.000
    CPCF [CPCF 466] 70494.000
    Heldreich [s.n.], Greece K000363937
    Heldreich [s.n.], Greece K000363938
    Trevelyan, W.C. [s.n.], Portugal K000363936
    Trevelyan, W.C. [s.n.], Portugal K000363931
    Tineo [s.n.], Italy K000363939
    s.coll. [s.n.], Italy K000363942
    s.coll. [s.n.], Italy K000363941
    s.coll. [s.n.], Greece K000363940


    First published in J. Bot. (Schrader) 1799(2): 324 (1800)

    Accepted by

    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Vázquez Pardo, F.M. (2009). Revisión de la familia Orchidaceae en Extremadura (España) Folia Botanica Extremadurensis 3: 1-367.
    • Faurholdt, N. & Pedersen, H.Æ. (2009). Flueblomster fra Marokko til Mellemøsten: 1-122. Dansk Orchide Klub og forfatterne.
    • G.I.R.O.S. (2009). Orchidee d'Italia: 1-303. Il Castello srl, Italy.
    • Pedersen, H.Æ. & Faurholdt, N. (2007). Ophrys. The Bee Orchids of Europe: 1-297. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Galán Cela, P. & Gamarra, R. (2003). Check List of the Iberian and Balearic Orchids 2 Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 60: 309-329.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.



    • Pedersen, H.Æ. & Faurholdt, N. Ophrys: the bee orchids of Europe. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 297p. ISBN 9781842461525 En Geog 1, (2007).


    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

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