1. Family: Orchidaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Ophrys L.
      1. Ophrys scolopax Cav.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Hungary, Medit. to N. Iran.

    [O-EM]
    Distribution

    Throughout most of the Mediterranean and further east to the Crimea, Iran and the Caucasus. It seems absent from Cyprus and some other islands as well as from the Mediterranean coast of the Levant. In the northeast, it reaches Hungary and Rumania. [Aeg, Alb, Bal, Bul, Cor, Cre, Fra, Gre, Hun, Ita, Por, Rum, Sar, Sic, Spa, Tur, Ukr, Yug; Ana, Mor, Tun]

    Habitat

    Dry as well as moist soil in full sunlight to light shade, from sea level to 2000 m altitude. Typical habitats include roadside slopes, garrigue, open pine and oak woods, grassland and olive groves that are run without application of fertiliser, pesticides and mechanical treatment of the soil.

    General Description

    Plant slender, 10-50(-90) cm tall with 2-15(-21) flowers in a lax spike. Sepals violet to white or green, (ob)ovate to elliptic (less frequently lanceolate-oblong), 7-16 × 3-10 mm; dorsal sepal flat to shallowly boatshaped, more or less incurved, from the base reflexed. Petals violet to rose-coloured or green, triangular to triangular-lanceolate or linear (sometimes auriculate) with reflexed margins, 1.5-8 × 0.8-4 mm, shaggy, spreading to slightly recurved. Lip with (reddish) brown to dark brown ground colour, straight with strongly recurved sides, deeply three-lobed close to the base, 6-16 × 6-20(-30) mm, brownish shaggy on the outer side of the side lobes and velvety along the margin of the mid-lobe (otherwise nearly glabrous); side lobes converted into obliquely conical to horn-like bulges; mid-lobe of varying length in relation to the side lobes, obtuse to rounded, provided with a broad and conspicuous, erect (to porrect), rectangular, rhomboid or (ob)triangular, often dentate appendage; mirror distinct, consisting of an H- or X-shaped to considerably more complicated (rarely simpler) figure, the basal arms of which are connected to the base of the lip, dull greyish blue to violet (rarely reddish brown) with an (often broad) cream border. Column acute to obtuse, not tapering towards the base (in side view); stigmatic cavity at least as wide as long and approximately twice as wide as the anther, with dark (rarely pale), lateral, eye-like knobs at base.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Sardegna

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Baleares, Bulgaria, Corse, East Aegean Is., France, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Kriti, Krym, Morocco, North Caucasus, Portugal, Romania, Sicilia, Spain, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia

    Ophrys scolopax Cav. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Chesterman, D.D. [140], Greece 40926.000
    Chesterman, D.D. [145], Greece 41027.000
    Wood, J.J. [553], France 45818.000
    Wood, J.J. [557], France 45878.000
    Wood, J.J. [552], France 45886.000
    Wood, J.J. [554], France 45913.000
    Wood, J.J. [760], Cyprus 49275.000
    Cribb, P. [244], Turkey 40004.000
    Chesterman, D. [151], Greece 40951.000
    Joseph, J. [373], Spain 48331.000
    Joseph, J. [228], Spain 48452.000
    Joseph, J. [372], Spain 48806.000
    Joseph, J. [371], Spain 48807.000
    Joseph, J. [201], Spain 48810.000
    Joseph, J. [369], Spain 48813.000
    Joseph, J. [374], Spain 48816.000
    Joseph, J. [378], Spain 48820.000
    Turner Ettlinger, D.M., Spain 48061.000
    Muir, H. [40], Greece 76404.000
    CPCF [CPCF 467a-b] 70493.000
    s.coll. [s.n.], Italy K000363970

    First published in Icon. 2: 46 (1793)

    Accepted by

    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Vázquez Pardo, F.M. (2009). Revisión de la familia Orchidaceae en Extremadura (España) Folia Botanica Extremadurensis 3: 1-367.
    • Faurholdt, N. & Pedersen, H.Æ. (2009). Flueblomster fra Marokko til Mellemøsten: 1-122. Dansk Orchide Klub og forfatterne.
    • Pedersen, H.Æ. & Faurholdt, N. (2007). Ophrys. The Bee Orchids of Europe: 1-297. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Galán Cela, P. & Gamarra, R. (2003). Check List of the Iberian and Balearic Orchids 2 Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 60: 309-329.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Pedersen, H.Æ. & Faurholdt, N. (2007). Ophrys. The Bee Orchids of Europe: 1-297. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Orchideae: e-monocot.org
    All Rights Reserved