1. Family: Orchidaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Orchis Tourn. ex L.
      1. Orchis italica Poir.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Medit.

    [O-EM]
    Ecology

    This lime-loving species settles amongst thin grasses, garrigues, light scrubby bushes and bright woodland on dry to seasonally wet subsoil rich in alkalines but even it likes to grow on particularly stony soils. It is found from the coast to a hights up to 1,300 m.

    General Description

    Orchis italica is a medium-sized plant, growing to between 20-40 cm high, however, now and then, it can also reach a height of 50 cm. The stalk is straight and thick, at its base are between 5 and 8 elongated oval leaves in a rosette, each with a length of between 5 and 11 cm and a width of between 1.5 and 2.5 cm. The leaves, very clearly and typically, have an undulated margin, they are, thereby, absolutely unmistakeable, and in this manner even sterile specimens cari be identified easily; this sign is unique in the whole genus. The leaves are mainly mottled but sometimes unmottled or faintly mottled specimens appear. The first or second uppermost leaves, vaginate the stalk and also envelop the inflorescence during the bud stage.

    The fully developed flower spike is 3.5 to 6.5 cm long and has many densely arranged flowers. The bracts are small and membranous, about 3 to 4 times shorter than the ovary. The sepals and petals form a helmet that is pale to light red with crimson veins. The lateral sepals are both lanceolate and long acuminate, and they are about 9-12 mm long; the matched petals are smaller. The lip is deeply divided into three parts, the wide central lobe runs out into two long and narrow lobules that are pointed at the tip. They are almost always irregularly bent; this leads to a very typical appearance of the whole inflorescence. Between both of these lobules is a third, filament-like appendage that bends strongly upwards and forward, it reaches at most, one third of the length of the side lobules (here the epithet longipenis is referred to in the synonym Orchis longicruris ssp. longipenis). Both side lobes are 1.3 to 1.6 cm long, with spiky tips, they also bend weakly upwards. The lip has a light violet to pink-violet colour and is drawn with numerous contrasting dark red streaks that exceptionally may be absent. The thin spur bends downwards and is approximately half as long as the ovary; it is 4 to 6 mm long on average and contains no nectar.

    Threats

    ln wide parts of its distribution area, the species does not seem to be endangered, a huge number of strong populations and regular mass populations are not particularly rare. This does not exclude the fact that local biotope destruction due to building projects and extensions of the infrastructure results in the extinction of these local populations.

    Biology

    The flowering time ranges according to altitude and geographic situation of the biotope from beginning of March to the middle of May. No data on pollinators is available and the percentage of flowers setting seed has not been documented up to now either. However, it is most likely an allogamous species, which is underlined, in particular, by the existence of hybrids with Orchis anthropophora and Orchis simia.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Baleares, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Greece, Italy, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Portugal, Sardegna, Sicilia, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, Yugoslavia

    Orchis italica Poir. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 21, 1970 Trevelyan, W.C. [16824] K000364129
    Sep 21, 1970 Trevelyan, W.C. [s.n.], Portugal K000364130
    Italy 19444.000
    Greece 20427.000
    224.000
    Italy 5839.000
    Italy 5843.000
    70412.000
    Harley, R.M., Greece 24638.000
    Harley, R.M. [B], Greece 24639.000
    Harley, R.M., Greece 24642.000
    Watson, J.M. [33], Turkey 225.000
    Syngrassides, A. [1467], Cyprus 20422.000
    Goulimy, C.N., Greece 5840.000
    Clements, M.A. [2550], Greece 48771.000
    Chase, M.W. [O-547 K] 70665.000
    Tineo [s.n.], Italy K000364132
    Gussone [s.n.], Italy K000364133
    Johnson, M.A.T. [s.n.], Cyprus K000396275
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000364131
    s.coll. [s.n.], Sicilia K000364134

    First published in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck, Encycl. 4: 600 (1798)

    Accepted by

    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Schopp, K. & Schopp, R. (2009). Orchis italica Poiret - eine bisher nicht bekannte Orchideenart auf Sardinien Berichte aus den arbeitskreisen heimische orchideen 26: 143-144.
    • Vázquez Pardo, F.M. (2009). Revisión de la familia Orchidaceae en Extremadura (España) Folia Botanica Extremadurensis 3: 1-367.
    • G.I.R.O.S. (2009). Orchidee d'Italia: 1-303. Il Castello srl, Italy.
    • Kretzschmar, H. ,Eccarius, W. & Dietrich, H. (2007). The Orchid Genera Anacamptis, Orchis and Neotinea. Phylogeny, taxonomy, morphology, biology, distribution, ecology and hybridisation, ed. 2: 1-544. EchinoMedia verlag, Bürgel.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2005). Flora Iberica 21: 1-366. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Galán Cela, P. & Gamarra, R. (2003). Check List of the Iberian and Balearic Orchids 2 Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 60: 309-329.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Schopp, K. & Schopp, R. (2009). Orchis italica Poiret - eine bisher nicht bekannte Orchideenart auf Sardinien Berichte aus den arbeitskreisen heimische orchideen 26: 143-144.
    • Kretzschmar, H. ,Eccarius, W. & Dietrich, H. (2007). The Orchid Genera Anacamptis, Orchis and Neotinea. Phylogeny, taxonomy, morphology, biology, distribution, ecology and hybridisation, ed. 2: 1-544. EchinoMedia verlag, Bürgel.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Orchideae: e-monocot.org
    All Rights Reserved