1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Areca L.
      1. Areca catechu L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Philippines.

    [FTEA]

    Palmae, John Dransfield. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

    Habit
    Solitary palm; stem to 15 m. or more, slightly swollen near the base, to 25 cm. in diameter above, pale grey-brown below, rich dark green above in younger parts, with prominent leaf scars 15–20 cm. distant.
    Leaves
    Crown shaft to 1 m. or more in length, wider than the trunk, bearing a crown of 8–10 leaves. Leaf-sheath 60–80 cm. long, dark green; leaf to 2 m. long, with petiole to 15 cm. only; leaflets rich dark green, ± 15 on each side of the rachis, densely crowded, rather untidy, tending to droop somewhat at the tips, with 3 or more folds, often tattering at the tips in age, at the base 40–50 cm. long, in mid-leaf ± 70 cm. long, at the leaf tip 15–25 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence erect at first; prophyll thin, to 60 cm. long, 25 cm. wide, pale yellow-green when young and newly exposed, rapidly splitting, drying and falling; peduncle to 20 cm. long by 5 cm. wide; rachillae ± 30 cm. long, stiff, erect or spreading, pale creamy yellow, bearing ivory-white flowers along the lower side only.
    Male
    Male flowers ± 5 mm. long; sepals free, minute, unequal, ± 1 mm. long by 1 mm. wide; petals 3, valvate, ± 5 mm. long by 2 mm. wide, somewhat sinuous; stamens 6, with short filaments and anthers to 4 mm. long by 0.8 mm. wide.
    Flowers
    Female flower with 3 imbricate, triangular sepals ± 1 cm. long by 1.1 cm. wide at base; petals 3, imbricate, ± 1.4 cm. long by 0.9 cm. wide; ovary rounded, ± 8 mm. in diameter; stigmas fleshy, white, glistening at anthesis. Male flowers ± 5 mm. long; sepals free, minute, unequal, ± 1 mm. long by 1 mm. wide; petals 3, valvate, ± 5 mm. long by 2 mm. wide, somewhat sinuous; stamens 6, with short filaments and anthers to 4 mm. long by 0.8 mm. wide.
    Female
    Female flower with 3 imbricate, triangular sepals ± 1 cm. long by 1.1 cm. wide at base; petals 3, imbricate, ± 1.4 cm. long by 0.9 cm. wide; ovary rounded, ± 8 mm. in diameter; stigmas fleshy, white, glistening at anthesis.
    Fruits
    Young fruit green, ripening dirty yellow, orange or brick-red, ± 5 cm. long by 3.5 cm. wide.
    Seeds
    Seed globose, flattened at basal end, ± 2 cm. in diameter; endosperm deeply and finely ruminate, the ruminations reddish brown when fresh.
    Habitat
    Largely coastal, planted here and there for its nut
    Distribution
    elsewhere commonly cultivated throughout the wetter parts of Asia and Malesia, country of origin unknown K7 P T3 T6 Z    coastal towns, Amani
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 400 - 1600 m.
    Habit
    Árbol

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Philippines

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China South-Central, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Fiji, Hainan, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Jawa, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Marianas, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Puerto Rico, Santa Cruz Is., Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Vanuatu, Vietnam

    Areca catechu L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 21, 1980 de Vogel, E. [3266], Indonesia K000525785
    Noblick, L. [5180], Indonesia K000525791
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8597] K001125935

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1189 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Heatubun, C.D., Dransfield, J., Flynn, T., Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S., Mogea, J.P. & Baker, W.J. (2012). A monograph of the betel nut palms (Areca: Arecaceae) of East Malesia Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 168: 147-173.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Powling, A. (2009). The palms of Buton, Indonesia, an island in Wallacea Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 53: 84-01.
    • Henderson, A. (2009). Palms of Southern Asia: 1-197. Princeton university press, Princeton and Oxford.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean) Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Watling, D. (2005). Palms of the Fiji Islands: 1-191. Environmental Consultants (Fiji) Ltd., Suva.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Heatubun, C.D., Dransfield, J., Flynn, T., Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S., Mogea, J.P. & Baker, W.J. (2012). A monograph of the betel nut palms (Areca: Arecaceae) of East Malesia Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 168: 147-173.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Powling, A. (2009). The palms of Buton, Indonesia, an island in Wallacea Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 53: 84-01.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean) Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Watling, D. (2005). Palms of the Fiji Islands: 1-191. Environmental Consultants (Fiji) Ltd., Suva.
    • Stutz, L.-C. (1982). Herborisation 1981 aux îles Maldives Candollea 37: 599-631.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 397 (1949).
    • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 130 (1949).
    • C.H. Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 8: 99 (1901).
    • Warb. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 131 (1895).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 1189 (1753).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0