1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.
      1. Bactris acanthocarpa Mart.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical America.

    [PW]
    General Description
    Stems solitary or less often cespitose and then with 2-5 or more stems per clump, 0.1- 1.5 m tall (rarely taller on old plants), 3-6 cm diam., sometimes procumbent, seldom spiny on internodes, usually covered with persistent, decaying leaf bases. Leaves 5-15; leaf spines mostly solitary and scattered, black, sometimes somewhat flattened, to 8(- 15) cm long, on sheath and lateral surfaces of petiole, denser on proximal part of petiole, usually absent from rachis; sheath 10-50 cm long; ocrea to 10 cm long; petiole 0.4-1.7 m long; petiole and rachis reddish brown-tomentose abaxially; rachis 0.6-3.1 m long; pinnae (3-) 12-33 per side, irregularly arranged in clusters of 2-4, spreading inslightly different planes, linear-lanceolate or sigmoid, long-acuminate, usually with prominent cross-veins; middle pinnae 20-60 x 3-10 cm; apical pinna usually wider than others. Inflorescences interfoliar, often hidden among persistent leaf bases and debris; peduncle 10-20 cm long, straight or slightly curved, usually not spinulose, sometimes scarcely to densely spinulose; prophyll 6-14 cm long; peduncular bract 20-40 cm long, moderately to densely covered with black spines to 1 cm long, sometimes more or less glabrous, persistent over infructescence and rotting at base as fruits develop; rachis 2-5 cm long; rachillae 10-46, 4-12 cm long, filamentous, at anthesis covered with brown, moniliform trichomes; triads more or less regularly arranged (but often with solitary staminate flowers interspersed) on proximal ca. half or more of rachillae, and there tending to be absent from adaxial side of rachillae (paired or solitary staminate flowers only on distal ca. half of rachillae); staminate flowers to 3 mm long, deciduous; sepal lobes 0.5-1 mm long; petals 2.5-3 mm long; stamens 6; pistillode absent; pistillate flowers 2-3 mrn long; calyx urceolate, 1-3 mm long, glabrous or with small,brown scales; corolla urceolate, 2-4 mm long, glabrous, or with a few small, brown scales, or occasionally with spinules, glabrescent; staminodes absent; fruits 1-2.3 cm diam., broadly obovoid, shortly rostrate, orange or red, with deciduous, flexuous spinules; mesocarp starchy; endocarp obovoid, the sterile pores slightly displaced longitudinally; endocarp fibers few or absent; fruiting perianth with short, 3-lobed, glabrous calyx and longer, 3-lobed, glabrous corolla,without staminodial ring. Understorey palm. Stems solitary or clustered, 0.1-1.5 m long, 3-6 cm in diameter. Leaf blade 60-310 cm long, simple or with (3-)12-33 pinnae on each side, grouped and spreading in slightly different planes, the central ones 20-60 cm long and 3-10 cm wide, with prominent, oblique cross veins. Inflorescence 12-30 cm long; branches 10-50, to 12 cm long, very slender, ca. 1 mm in diameter. Female flowers nearly regularly arranged along the branches. Fruit orange-red, globose, 1-2.5 cm in diameter, with scattered, thin spines; fruiting perianth with a short 3-lobed calyx and a longer, 3-lobed corolla; staminodial ring absent.
    Distribution
    Common and widespread in the Amazon region and Atlantic coastal forest, in lowland rain forest on terra firme, usually below 300 m elevation but occasionally to 1000 m. Widespread in the Amazon region.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 75 - 300 m.; Amazonia, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena.
    Habit
    Arbusto, palma acaule
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela

    Bactris acanthocarpa Mart. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 92 (1826)

    Accepted by

    • Lorenzi, H., Noblick, L.R., Kahn, F. & Ferreira, E. (2010). Brazilian Flora Arecaceae (Palms): 1-268. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA, São Paulo, Brazil.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000
    • Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0