1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.
      1. Bactris balanophora Spruce

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Colombia to N. Brazil.

    [PW]
    Distribution
    North of the Amazon river in Colombia (Amazonas, Vaupes), Venezuela (Amazonas), and Brazil (Amazonas); low land rain forest either on terra firme or rarely in inundated areas, 120-600 m elevation
    General Description
    Stems cespitose, forming clumps of 2-6 stems, 1.5-7 m tall, 2-3 cm diam., spiny on the internodes. Leaves 5-8; leaf spines in distinct clusters, black, somewhat flattened, pilose, to 6(-15) cm long, few to many on sheath, lateral surfaces of petiole and rachis; sheath 30-58 cm long; ocrea to 10 cm long; petiole 40-60 cm long; rachis 0.6-1.1 m long; pinnae 15-21 per side, irregularly arranged in loose clusters of 2- 5, often with gaps between the clusters, spreading in slightly different planes, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous or usually with sparse, fine spinules abaxially; middle pinnae 34-58 x 2-4.5 cm. Inflorescences infrafoliar among persistent leaf sheaths; peduncle 9-11 cm long, recurved, spinulose; prophyll 12-13 cm long; peduncular bract 21-25 cm long, moderately to densely covered with stiff, black spines to 1 cm long; rachis 2-3 cm long; rachillae (5-)7-15, 10-11 cm long, at anthesis densely covered with whitish, flexuous trichomes; triads irregularly arranged among paired or solitary staminate flowers; staminate flowers 2.5-4 mm long; sepal lobes 1-1.5 mm long; petals 2.5-4 mm long; stamens 6; pistillode absent; pistillate flowers to 3 mm long; calyx cupular, 0.8 mm long; corolla tubular, to 3 mm long, densely covered with stiff, whitish trichomes; staminodes absent; fruits 1.3-1.7 x 0.7-0.8 cm, ovoid or obovoid, not rostrate, orange at maturity; mesocarp starchy; endocarp obovoid, the sterile pores slightly displaced longitudinally; endocarp fibers flattened, adherent to endocarp, anastomosing; fruiting perianth with short, smooth-margined calyx and longer, entire-margined corolla densely covered with trichomes, without staminodial ring
    Vernacular
    Colombia: chontaduro paso, chontilla, ho-tá-ñe (Makuna), oo-chee-an (Maku), ya-yo-(e)r(u) (Huitoto). Venezuela: ceguera, cubarro, espina de sardina, pijiwau de monte
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 600 m.; Amazonia, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena.
    Habit
    Arbusto, palma cespitosa
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Brazil North, Colombia, Venezuela

    Bactris balanophora Spruce appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 1950 Spruce, R. [53], Brazil K000574528 Unknown type material
    May 1, 1950 Spruce, R. [53], Brazil K000574529 Unknown type material

    First published in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 11: 146 (1869)

    Accepted by

    • Lorenzi, H., Noblick, L.R., Kahn, F. & Ferreira, E. (2010). Brazilian Flora Arecaceae (Palms): 1-268. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA, São Paulo, Brazil.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0