1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.
      1. Bactris bifida Mart.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. South America to NW. Brazil.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 80 - 220 m.; Amazonia.
    Habit
    Subarbusto, arbusto, palma cespitosa
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor
    [PW]
    Distribution
    Mostly south of the Amazon river in Colombia (Amazonas), Peru (Huanuco, Loreto, San Martin, Ucayali), and western Brazil (Acre, Amazonas); lowland rain forest either on terra firme or more commonly in areas liable to seasonal inundation or other wet places, at 106-600 m elevation
    General Description
    Stems cespitose, forming small or large clumps, often leaning, 1-4 m tall, 1-2 cm diam., the internodes usually not spiny. Leaves 4-10; leaf spines solitary and scattered, brown or black, to 8 cm long, on lateral surfaces of sheath, petiole, and rachis; sheath 12-28 cm long, very fibrous on margins; ocrea to 10 cm long, becoming fibrous; petiole (0-)12-22(-100) cm long; rachis 40-70 cm long; blade simple or rarely pinnate proximally, long cuneate basally, deeply bifid apically, strongly plicate, with a metallic sheen on drying; blade 40-100 cm long, 12-20 cm wide at apex of rachis. Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 15-25 cm long, straight or slightly recurved, not spiny; prophyll 8-13 cm long; peduncular bract 16-25 cm long, sparsely covered with black spines to 5 mm long; rachillae 1-2,4-6.5 cm long, at anthesis glabrous or with a few flexuous trichomes; triads regularly arranged, these interspersed with paired or solitary staminate flowers; staminate flowers 3-6 mm long, deciduous; sepal lobes 1-1.5 mm long; petals 3-5.5 mm long; stamens 6; pistillode absent; pistillate flowers 3-4 mm long; calyx tubular, 3-4 mm long; corolla tubular, 2.5-3.5 mm long; staminodial ring obscure, 0.5 mm long; fruits 2-2.5 x 1-1.5 cm, narrowly ellipsoid, ovoid, or ellipsoid-oblong, purple-black, sometimes minutely spinulose; mesocarp juicy; endocarp ellipsoid, the sterile pores displaced longitudinally, the fertile pore displaced latitudinally; endocarp fibers free, numerous, with juice sacs attached; fruiting perianth with short calyx and much longer, crenate corolla, staminodial ring present.
    Vernacular
    Brazil: ubim de espinho. Peru: ñeja negra

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Brazil North, Colombia, Peru

    Bactris bifida Mart. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Ule, E. [5596], Brazil K000526389 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1998 Trail, J.W.H. [911], Brazil Bactris bifida var. puruensis K000584793 holotype
    Trail, J.W.H. [910], Brazil Bactris bifida var. puruensis K000584794 holotype
    Jan 1, 1995 Trail, J.W.H. [909], Brazil Bactris bifida var. humaitensis K000584795 holotype

    First published in Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 105 (1826)

    Accepted by

    • Lorenzi, H., Noblick, L.R., Kahn, F. & Ferreira, E. (2010). Brazilian Flora Arecaceae (Palms): 1-268. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA, São Paulo, Brazil.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0