1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.
      1. Bactris concinna Mart.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. South America to NW. Brazil.

    [PW]
    Vernacular
    Bolivia: marajau. Brazil: maraja. Colombia: caña brava, paipigu (Puinave).Ecuador: ansepara (Quichua), chontilla, nu-que(Siona). Peru: ñejilla. niejilla. palmera. síi (Ese-ejha).
    Distribution
    Colombia (Amazonas), Ecuador (Napo. Sucumbíos). Peru (Loreto. Madre de Dios. Ucayali). Brazil (Acre, Amazonas), and Bolivia (Beni. La Paz, Pando. Santa Cruz); lowland rain forest, especially along streams and rivers and in other seasonally inundated areas, at 100-260m elevation. W Amazon region in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Distribution in Ecuador. In Ecuador it is a common species throughout the E lowlands, forming large colonies on periodically flooded terrain especially along black water streams, or more rarely on river terraces.
    General Description
    Stems cespitose, forming small clumps, 1-4 m tall, 1.5-2 cm diam., erect or often leaning, spiny on internodes. Leaves 3-10; leaf spines scattered, black or brownish, terete, to 2 cm long, inter spersed with fewer spines to 10 cm long, dense on lateral margins of sheath and petiole, few or absent on rachis; sheath 18-50 cm long, fibrous on margins; ocrea to 15 cm long; petiole 12-74 cm long; rachis 0.9-2 m long; pinnae 16-52 per side. regularly arranged, spreading in the same plane, linear, with spinules on margins, with a metallic sheen on drying; middle pinnae 15-52 x 1-2 cm. Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 14-30 cm long, recurved, not spiny; prophyll 1-22 cm long; peduncular bract 20-40 cm long, moderately covered with black spines to 1.5 cm long ; rachis absent; rachillae 1-2(-3),5-12 cm long, at anthesis glabrous; triads regularly arranged; staminate flowers 6-10 mm long. persistent; sepal lobes 2-4 mm long; petals 6-10 mm long; stamens 6-10; pistillode small or absent; pistillate flowers to 6 mm long; calyx tubular, 3-4 mm long; corolla tubular, to 5 mm long, spinulose; staminodial ring free from the corolla, to 3.5 mm long; fruits 2-3 x 1-1.5 cm. congested on rachillae, irregularly and narrowly obovoid, purple-black, tomentose, sometimes minutely spinulose; mesocarp juicy; endocarpe ellipsoid, the sterile pores displaced longitudinally, the fertile pore displaced latitudinally; endocarp fibers free, numerous, with juice sacs attached; fruiting perianth with small, lobed calyx and much longer, scarcely lobed corolla, with prominent staminodial ring. Understorey palm. Stems clustered, forming large colonies, 1-8 m tall and 1.5-5 cm in diameter. Leaf blade 1-2 m long; pinnae 30-50 on each side, regularly inserted and spreading in one plane, the central ones 40-70 cm long and 2-3.5 cm wide, lined with small black spines along the midrib and the margins. Inflorescence 25-50 cm long, unbranched or with 2-3, 10-12 cm long branches. Female flowers regularly arranged along the branches. Fruits glossy black, 2-5 cm long, tightly packed; fruiting perianth with a small, lobed calyx, a much longer corolla, and a staminodial ring.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 80 - 250 m.; Amazonia, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena.
    Habit
    Arbusto, palma cespitosa
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor
    [PW]
    Use
    The fruits are edible and are sold in local markets and fed to domestic animals (Henderson & Pardini 1510).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bolivia, Brazil North, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

    Bactris concinna Mart. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1995 Trail, J.W.H. [878], Brazil Bactris concinna subsp. depauperata K000584791 holotype
    Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil Bactris concinna var. inundata K000526380 Unknown type material

    First published in Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 99 (1826)

    Accepted by

    • Lorenzi, H., Noblick, L.R., Kahn, F. & Ferreira, E. (2010). Brazilian Flora Arecaceae (Palms): 1-268. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA, São Paulo, Brazil.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000
    • Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0