1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.
      1. Bactris hirta Mart.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical America.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 80 - 500 m.; Amazonia, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena.
    Habit
    Subarbusto, arbusto, palma cespitosa
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor
    [PW]
    Distribution
    The Amazon region and adjacent areas, plus SE Brazil, at low elevations. Distribution in Ecuador. The species is apparently rare in Ecuador, where it has been recorded only once. Common and widespread throughout the Amazon region and Atlantic coastal forest of Brazil; lowland or upland rain foreston terra firme, usually below 350 m elevation but occasionally to 1500 m.
    Vernacular
    Brazil: aricanga-falsa-inteira, aricanga-falsa-partida, jawpe, marajá, marazaiwaran (Tembé), tucui, tucum-mirim, ubim rana. Colombia: chontaduro de rana. Suriname: kiskismaka. Venezuela: cubarro, cuivaro, espinita, guaro.
    General Description
    Understorey palm. Stem 50-300 cm tall, 0.5-2 cm in diameter. Leaf blade to 2 m long, simple or pinnate. Female flowers scattered along the branches, with an annular calyx much shorter than the corolla. Fruit orange-red to purplish black, globose, 5-10 mm in diameter, covered with small bristles; fruiting perianth with a very small calyx and a much longer, hairy, 3-lobed corolla; staminodial ring absent. Stems solitary or cespitose and forming small clumps, 0.5-3 m tall, 0.5-2 cm diam., commonly covered with persistent, decaying leaf bases, spiny or not spiny on internodes. Leaves 3-8; leaf spines somewhat clustered, black, terete or sometimes flattened, 0.5-3(-5) cm long, dense on sheath, fewer on petiole, usually absent from rachis, or spines absent; sheath 8-26 cm long, sheath, petiole, and rachis spinulose or brown-tomentose; ocrea to 1 cm long; petiole 6-89 cm long; rachis 15-80 cm long; blade simple or pinnate, pinnate leaves with 7-30 pinnae per side, regularly or irregularly arranged, spreading in the same plane, linear, linear-lanceolate or sigmoid, aristate, with fine spinules along the margins, usually with soft hairs to 3 mm long abaxially, and occasionally adaxially; simple leaves 23-80 cm long, 9-20 cm wide at rachis apex, sometimes lighter green abaxially, sometimes with prominent cross-veins, middle pinnae of pinnate leaves 10-37 x 1-3 cm. Inflorescences inter- or infrafoliar, usually borne among persistent leaf sheaths; peduncle 3-21 cm long, straight or curved, spinulose or not; prophyll 3-6(-9) cm long; peduncular bract 9- 12 cm long, sparsely to densely covered with black or brown spines to 5 mm long; rachis 0-0.7 cm long; rachillae 1-4(-6),2.5- 7 cm long, usually forming a 45° angle with the stem, at anthesis densely whitish brown-tomentose, covered with brown; moniliform trichomes; triads regularly arranged almost throughout rachillae, paired or solitary staminate distally; staminate flowers 3-4 mm long, semipersistent or deciduous; sepal lobes 0.5-1 mm long; petals 3-4 mm long; stamens 6-7; pistillode absent; pistillate flowers 2-3.5 mm long; calyx annular, 0.5-1 mm long; corolla tubular, 2-3.5 mm long, tomentose, densely covered with long, flexuous, appressed, brown hairs, these exceeding the corolla; staminodes minute or absent; fruits 5-8 mm diam., rarely to 1 cm long, globose to broadly obovoid, orange-red or red, afterwards becoming black, covered with fine, brown, deciduous spinules, rarely glabrous; mesocarp starchy; endocarp turbinate, the sterile pores slightly displaced longitudinally or equally spaced; endocarp fibers few, free; fruiting perianth with small, 3-lobed calyx and much longer, hairy, broadly 3-lobed corolla, without staminodial ring.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela

    Bactris hirta Mart. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Ule, E. [6221], Peru K000526437 Unknown type material

    First published in Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 105 (1826)

    Accepted by

    • Lorenzi, H., Noblick, L.R., Kahn, F. & Ferreira, E. (2010). Brazilian Flora Arecaceae (Palms): 1-268. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA, São Paulo, Brazil.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000
    • Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0