1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.
      1. Bactris major Jacq.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Trinidad, Mexico to S. Tropical America.

    [PW]
    Habitat
    In forest or more often in open areas near streams or standing water, often in coastal areas, also in disturbed places, below 600 m elevation.
    General Description
    Stems cespitose, forming dense or open clumps, 1-10 m tall, 2-6 cm diam., spiny on internodes. Leaves 3-10; leaf spines brown or black, more or less terete, to 11 cm long, moderate to dense on sheath, petiole, and rachis; sheath 22-55 cm long, fibrous on margins; ocrea to 20 cm long, becoming fibrous; petiole 0.1 -1.5 m long; rachis 0.7-1.8 m long; pinnae 24-46 per side, more or less regularly arranged, sometimes irregularly, spreading in the same plane, linear, aristate, minutely spiny on margins, with a metallic sheen on drying; middle pinnae 25-62 x 1-3.5 cm. Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 15-40 cm long, recurved, spinulose or densely spiny; prophyll 13-30 cm long; peduncular bract 28-60 cm long, densely to moderately covered with black, dark brown, or yellowish brown spines to 1(-2) cm long; rachis 0.5-4 cm long; rachillae (1-)5-10(-17), 9-23 cm long, ca. 2 mm diam. at anthesis, 3-4 mm thick in fruit, at anthesis scarcely covered brown tomentum; triads irregularly arranged among paired or solitary staminate flowers; staminate flowers 3-8 mm long, somewhat persistent; sepal lobes 1.5-3 mm long; petals 3-7 mm long; stamens 6; pistillode absent; pistillate flowers 4-9 mm long; calyx tubular, 4-8 mm long, minutely spinulose; corolla tubular, 3-5 mm long, minutely and densely spinulose; staminodial ring adnate to corolla, 1-3 mm long; fruits 1.5-4.5 x 1-3.5 cm, subglobose, irregularly ellipsoid, ellipsoid-oblong, or broadly obo-void, brown or purple-black, with minute spinules or small brown scales; mesocarp juicy; endocarp ellipsoid or obovoid, the pores equatorial, equidistant, but fertile one displaced proximally; endocarp fibers numerous, free; fruiting perianth with regularly lobed calyx shorter than the regularly lobed, swollen corolla, with staminodial ring adnate to corolla.
    Distribution
    Common and widespread from southern Mexico through Central America to northern South America, less common in the Amazon region, again common in lowland Bolivia.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela

    Bactris major Jacq. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Select. Stirp. Amer. Hist., ed. 2: 134 (1781)

    Accepted by

    • Lorenzi, H., Noblick, L.R., Kahn, F. & Ferreira, E. (2010). Brazilian Flora Arecaceae (Palms): 1-268. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA, São Paulo, Brazil.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Linares, J.L. (2003 publ. 2005). Lista comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la República de El Salvador Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 44: 105-268.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000

    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0